The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions. In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules and their application across jurisdictions.
This report gathers in a synthetic manner the knowledge and evidence available to date on the various mechanisms available to governments to promote regulatory co-operation, and their benefits and challenges. The review of evidence confirms the increased internationalisation of regulation, which takes place through a wide variety of mechanisms and multiple actors, and highlights a shift in the nature of IRC from complete 'harmonisation' of regulation to more flexible options - such as mutual recognition agreements. Despite growing regulatory co-operation, however, decision making on IRC is not informed by a clear understanding of benefits costs and success factors of the diverse IRC options.
Developing effective policies to reduce illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods requires a clear understanding of what drives this trade and the circumstances under which it thrives, says this report.
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Over the course of the last half century, the global expansion of trade has reshaped the world economy. Trade opening has enabled economies to reap the benefits of specialisation and focus more productively on what they do best, through the sectors where they demonstrate comparative advantage.
Launched and co-ordinated by the OECD, the International Collaborative Initiative on Trade and Employment (ICITE) is a two-year old joint undertaking of ten international organisations. Under ICITE, a broad research agenda focusing on the interaction between trade and employment has been implemented. This book brings together some of the results of that research.
Opening with an overview chapter from the OECD, the book continues with papers covering 1)trade, wages and employment, 2) trade and services, 3) trade and working conditions, and 4) regional trade perspectives.
International trade produces income gains, but increased trade exposure also creates some challenges that require complementary policies to maximise the benefits of trade. This paper looks at how Australia has dealt with these issues in recent years.
Exchange rate volatility impacts trade flows in small, open economies more than for larger economies, according to this study of trade in the agricultural and the manufacturing and mining sectors of Chile and New Zealand.
The signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was a source of debate in United States politics, particularly regarding possible labour market effects. This paper gives an overview and assessment of the debate and US employment policy responses.