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Over the past years, Indonesia has implemented a number of trade and investment measures to develop local industries and move its firms up the value chain, but these measures have raised concerns in many of its trading partners.
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India’s foreign value added content of exports was 22% in 2009 (the second highest in the BRIICS after China), up from 10% in 1995, illustrating an increased fragmentation of production and integration into global value chains, into which India could integrate even better.
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Exports increasingly rely on imports, that is to say intermediate goods and services. This means that they consequently rely on value added in the countries that manufacture inputs into their export goods and services. Trade in value added (TiVA) is an approach used to estimate a breakdown of the value added–by country and industry– to a good or service produced for export or consumed in the domestic economy.
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OECD-WTO brief on Aid for Trade: Is It Working?
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Conclusions and recommendations from a major OECD study in response to the financial and economic crisis that started in 2008.
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Trade in intermediate goods and services brings economic benefits but barriers can produce plant closures and job losses.
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Trade can contribute on a sustained basis to productivity growth, quality job creation and increased consumer choice.
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Adapting to change is vital for success in the modern global economy, for individuals, companies, industries and regions. New technologies breed new industries, and freer trade leads to new markets as well as global competition. “Structural adjustment” or adaptation to structural change is necessary for economies to reap the benefits of new technologies and emerging market opportunities. But such structural change can create losers as
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Will developing countries really gain substantially from further multilateral trade liberalisation? This is a vital issue for the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) talks at the World Trade Organization (WTO) and a requirement for their successful conclusion.It is clear that many developing countries have benefited from multilateral trade negotiations and the resultant market-opening agreements in the decades since the Second World War.