The chemicals sector has a long history of innovation and is a large trading item. This paper analyses and compares different trade and innovation linkages in basic industrial chemicals, specialty and fine chemicals and consumer chemicals.
Momentum for intellectual property (IP) reform in China is related to economic potential there, involving privatization policies, trade and FDI policies, and the government's role in innovation strategy. This study looks at IP issues facing firms operating in China.
Reforms in policy on intellectual property rights (IPRs) such as copyrights, trademarks and patent protection deliver positive economic results for developing countries, according to this OECD study.
Open markets will be necessary for a sustained economic recovery. This report recommends that governments continue to resist protectionist pressures and work towards a level playing field for trade.
Open markets will be necessary for a sustained economic recovery, so governments must continue to resist protectionist pressures, says this report on trade policy responses to the economic crisis.
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Members have updated their responses to the 2007 Survey on the environment and officially supported export credits - Part 02.
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Members have updated their responses to the 2007 Survey on the environment and officially supported export credits - Part 01.
The dramatic collapse in world trade in 2009 is, this report shows, mainly due to: the drop in demand for highly traded products; the drying up of trade finance; and the vertically integrated nature of global supply chains. Contrary to expectations, protectionist measures were relatively muted and did not play a significant part. In fact, because of their sheer size, stimulus measures may have had more impact on trade than direct trade policy measures Nevertheless, dollar for dollar, direct trade restricting measures have the most strongly negative impacts on growth and employment: a one dollar increase in tariff revenues results in a USD 2.16 drop in world exports and a USD 0.73 drop in world income.
The analyses presented here suggest that exit strategies from measures to deal with the crisis will be most effective in boosting growth and jobs if they first roll back measures that discriminate between domestic and foreign firms and those that target specific sectors. General demand stimulus measures and active labour market policies are preferable under current conditions.
Developing countries and economies can see real benefits from trade liberalisation, which can play a role in economic development and poverty alleviation.
Private financial sector investment in agriculture has increased, mainly because of current prospects for income generation, capital appreciation, and uncorrelated returns with equity markets and as a hedge against inflation. This paper surveys this investment activity and its impacts.