This report examines services schedules of commitments in 56 regional trade agreements (RTAs) where an OECD country is a party.
Source: OECD International Trade by Commodity Statistics (updated continuously) - Annual merchandise trade statistics of OECD countries are shown with all partner countries at 2-digit level of the Harmonised System (HS) 1988. More detailed data are available on DVD and online up to 6-digit level of the HS 1996 and up to 5-digit level of the Standard International Trade Classification (Rev.2 and Rev.3) in terms of values and quantities.
Export restrictions on raw materials can have a negative impact on the efficient allocation of resources, international trade and the competitiveness and development of industries in both importing and exporting countries, according to this collection of papers.
Export restrictions on raw materials are applied to achieve a number of policy objectives. However, they can have a significant and negative impact on the efficient allocation of resources, international trade, and the competitiveness and development of industries in both exporting and importing countries.
By diverting exports to domestic markets, export restrictions raise prices for foreign consumers and importers. At the same time, by reducing domestic prices in the applying countries and increasing global uncertainty concerning future prices, export restrictions negatively affect investment, thus potentially reducing the overall supply of raw materials in the long term. In view of existing alternative policy tools that have a different impact on trade, the effectiveness of export restrictions to achieve stated policy objectives should be carefully reviewed.
This publication presents a selection of papers discussed at the OECD Workshop on Raw Materials, held in Paris in October 2009. This workshop was organised in response to the growing concern on the use of export restrictions on raw materials, particularly by emerging economies.
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Open markets, complemented by properly designed employment and social policies, are essential to growth and job creation, says this joint report by the OECD, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Bank and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
In the event of a surge in the world price of wheat or rice, policies such as additional border measures, consumer subsidies or a release of public stocks would have high costs for taxpayers and negative consequences for international markets, finds this study of ten emerging economies.
The meeting served as a forum for senior services experts from emerging economies to discuss newly developed analytical tools and assess their relevance in informing evidence-based policy.
Meeting of experts to discuss services for air, maritime, and land transport, as well as the transport and logistics supply chain.
Meeting of experts to discuss services for distribution, both wholesale and retail and in both food and non-food contexts.
Commodity prices surged in 2006-08 in Argentina, Brazil, China, Chile, India, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa, Ukraine and Vietnam. Government policy responses to these price surges were not always successful in minimising the impact on consumers and producers, this report finds.