The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is an important policy for the European Union and accounts for about 40% of the EU budget. Ever since its inception in 1958, the CAP has been regularly reviewed and adjusted to improve its performance and adapt to changing circumstances. At a time when the post-2013 future of the CAP is being discussed and major challenges such as food security and climate change lay ahead, it is important to review the impact of past reforms and to draw lessons for the design of future policies.
While the studies in these proceedings often take account of national and international market effects of agricultural policies, they tend to focus on the impact of policies on farms and at the regional and local levels. Today, the European Union is composed of very diverse regions that are affected very differently by any given farm policy, depending on the structural characteristics of the farms’ and regions’ economies.
This report collects papers presented at the OECD Workshop on Disaggregated Impacts of CAP Reforms, held in Paris in March 2010, which focused on recent reforms. In particular, it examined the implementation of the single payment scheme since 2005 and the transfer of funds between different measures. Special attention was also paid to reforms of the sugar and dairy sectors with respect to the quota system and the restructuring of both these industries. The papers also look at the impact of the new direct payment system on land use, production and income.
A 50% reduction of trade barriers by G20 economies, complemented by active labour and adjustment policies, could generate more jobs, higher real wages and increased exports, according to new OECD analysis. (OECD Trade Policy Working Paper no. 107)
Meeting of experts to discuss audiovisual services in the areas of production, distribution and projection of motion pictures; broadcasting services; and sound recordings.
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The OECD-Eurostat Trade by Enterprise Characteristics database (TEC) reveals that 4.5% of US firms sell to foreign markets (Figure 1). On average, a similar share of EU firms exports to other European Union member countries, but only 2.7% of EU firms export outside EU markets.
Consult our series of studies, free to access and download, on issues including trade liberalisation, trade restrictions, trade in services and the Aid for Trade initiative with developing countries.
Surging food and commodity prices are undermining efforts to tackle global poverty and hunger and threaten economic growth, said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría.
This report examines services schedules of commitments in 56 regional trade agreements (RTAs) where an OECD country is a party.
Source: OECD International Trade by Commodity Statistics (updated continuously) - Annual merchandise trade statistics of OECD countries are shown with all partner countries at 2-digit level of the Harmonised System (HS) 1988. More detailed data are available on DVD and online up to 6-digit level of the HS 1996 and up to 5-digit level of the Standard International Trade Classification (Rev.2 and Rev.3) in terms of values and quantities.
Export restrictions on raw materials can have a negative impact on the efficient allocation of resources, international trade and the competitiveness and development of industries in both importing and exporting countries, according to this collection of papers.
Export restrictions on raw materials are applied to achieve a number of policy objectives. However, they can have a significant and negative impact on the efficient allocation of resources, international trade, and the competitiveness and development of industries in both exporting and importing countries.
By diverting exports to domestic markets, export restrictions raise prices for foreign consumers and importers. At the same time, by reducing domestic prices in the applying countries and increasing global uncertainty concerning future prices, export restrictions negatively affect investment, thus potentially reducing the overall supply of raw materials in the long term. In view of existing alternative policy tools that have a different impact on trade, the effectiveness of export restrictions to achieve stated policy objectives should be carefully reviewed.
This publication presents a selection of papers discussed at the OECD Workshop on Raw Materials, held in Paris in October 2009. This workshop was organised in response to the growing concern on the use of export restrictions on raw materials, particularly by emerging economies.