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Empirical evidence on the relationship between trade and informal labour markets suggests variations due to country-specific characteristics - in particular, labour market rigidity, capital mobility, level of economic development and heterogeneity of the informal workforce.
Agriculture continues to create jobs in rural areas of South Africa, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations, and future trade liberalisation would increase employment in the agricultural sector, according to this study.
This paper reviews the main schools of thought on the political economy of trade and employment - in particular, the potential costs of liberalisation and the manner that concerns about these costs may inhibit countries' willingness to open markets.
The effects of globalisation have been at the forefront of public debate in recent years, fuelled on the one hand by the large benefits of integrated markets, and on the other hand, by the detrimental adjustment effects often experienced by many economies as a result. Knowing how trade has been evolving over time and the role policy has played in this evolution are critical to understanding the globalisation debate and grasping
Imports tend to bring wages up for skilled workers rather than push wages down, according to this study of the relationship between wages and trade in 55 countries and 40 industries. This positive effect is evidence of the increased productivity of firms who import inputs.
Exchange rate levels affect trade flows in agriculture and in the manufacturing and mining sector in China, the Euro area and the United States, though they do not explain in their entirety the trade imbalances in these three economies, this paper finds.
Physical and human capital (especially second- and third-level education), financial development and some aspects of labour market institutions are important policy and institutional areas that determine comparative advantage today, according to this paper.
Governments and taxpayers spent about half a trillion dollars last year supporting the production and consumption of fossil fuels. Removing inefficient subsidies would raise national revenues and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, according to OECD and IEA analyses.
This Inventory provides reliable and comparable data on support or tax expenditures for fossil fuel production or use in OECD countries. Reforming fossil fuel subsidies can contribute to achieving economic and fiscal objectives, while also tackling environmental problems like climate change.
On the 50th anniversary of the OECD, we examine the unique work the organisation performs in regulating and rationalising governments’ use of export credits in support of exports, jobs, economic growth and national interests more broadly. This work is part of a global post war effort to emphasise multilateral co operation and sound economic policies to promote co operation, efficiency and prosperity rather than destructive