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Illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods, such as threatened wildlife, timber, hazardous waste, and ozone-depleting substances, has been a long-standing issue in the international trade and environment agenda. The nature of such illegal trade makes it difficult to fully understand its extent and impact on the environment. Developing effective policies to reduce illegal trade requires a clear understanding of what drives this
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Merchandise trade slowed in most major economies in the second quarter of 2012, with contractions in all major European economies, India, Russia and South Africa.
Recent experience of highly turbulent markets has renewed interest in quantitative assessment of price volatility by stochastic simulations using the AGLINK-COSIMO model. Measuring the contribution of correlation of yield shocks to price volatility, this paper shows that correlation effects account for a significant portion of price volatility for coarse grains and wheat.
This report is an overview of the management of risk due to livestock diseases, a potentially catastrophic type of risk that can have strong external effects given its links to the food chain and to human health. Animal disease, primarily in farmed livestock, has long been a policy concern for food safety reasons and the high economic losses it can engender. The globalisation of trade and human movement, and sensitivities to food
World Trade Organisation (WTO) disciplines in the policy area of export restrictions could benefit in a number of ways from the approaches found in some regional trade agreements, according to this study.
OECD countries have agreed new rules to strengthen current environmental and social due diligence processes when providing export credits and to create financially prudent incentives to support business projects with low CO2 emissions. The second agreement also aims to encourage support for advanced climate-friendly technologies such as carbon capture and storage.
This paper focuses on the market openness aspects of regulatory reform in Indonesia to devise recommendations for improving the country’s regulatory processes. These recommendations involve institutionalising independent and objective evaluations of policies from an economy-wide perspective, as well as instituting a process by which broad public consultations are systematically required.
G20 governments should devise and implement a new series of peer reviews within the G20 process to ensure that policies improve agricultural productivity and food security, according to a new report by 12 international organisations.
Rio+20 faces challenges that the Rio Earth Summit could not have foreseen: a growing gap between the rich and the poor, a global economic crisis, and some 2 billion more people by 2050 relying on the planets natural resources and the environment.