An estimated 22% of the world’s largest firms are now effectively under state control, this is the highest percentage in decades. These firms are likely to remain a prominent feature of the global marketplace in the near future. The upsurge of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as global competitors has given rise to concerns related to a level playing field. Some business competitors and observers claim that preferential treatment granted by governments to SOEs in return for public policy obligations carried out at home can give SOEs a competitive edge in their foreign expansion. The OECD has taken a multidisciplinary approach, looking at the issue from the competition, investment, corporate governance and trade policy perspectives. The report aims to sort fact from fiction, and develop a stronger understanding, based on empirical evidence, on how to address growing policy concerns with regard to SOE internationalisation. The report concludes that although there is no clear evidence of systematic abusive behaviour by SOE investors, frictions need to be addressed, in view of keeping the global economy open to trade and investment.
This report focuses on the significant developments in world agricultural markets and in the policies of major agricultural producing regions since the latest round of WTO negotiations began in 2001. In the past decade, production, prices and trade flows have been transformed and countries have substantially altered their agricultural trade and domestic support policies. The impacts of these policies on global production, trade and welfare (proxied by private household consumption) are assessed along with the effects of possible multilateral trade reform scenarios. The assessments are made through an application of the OECD’s computable general equilibrium model, METRO, in conjunction with the AGLINK-COSIMO outlook model.
OECD and FAO have developed this Guidance to help enterprises observe standards of responsible business conduct and undertake due diligence along agricultural supply chains in order to ensure that their operations contribute to sustainable development. The Guidance comprises:
• A model enterprise policy outlining the standards that enterprises should observe to build responsible agricultural supply chains;
• A framework for risk-based due diligence describing the five steps that enterprises should follow to identify, assess, mitigate and account for how they address the adverse impacts of their activities;
• A description of the major risks faced by enterprises and the measures to mitigate these risks;
• Guidance for engaging with indigenous peoples.
English, Excel, 30kb
ASU historical MPR and MRS in Excel format
English, Excel, 44kb
ASU historical Margin Benchmark for civil aircraft.
English, PDF, 177kb
Market Reflective Surcharge (MRS) and resulting Minimum Premium Rates (MPRs) have been updated. These updated MPRs replace Table 5 of Appendix II of the Aircraft Sector Understanding (2011 ASU) and are applicable as of 15 October 2016.
English, Excel, 639kb
This excel file contains all the historical interest rates used in the Export Credits. These include CIRR since 1983, ASU CIRR since 2007, RESU CIRR since 2009 and NSU CIRR since 2009 - version dated 6 October 2016.
English, PDF, 360kb
Minimum interest rates to apply to official financing support for export credits covered by the nuclear power plants Understanding (Annex II of the Arrangement).
English, Excel, 362kb
Minimum interest rates to apply to official financing support for export credits covered by the renewable energy, climate change mitigation and adaptation and water projects Sector Understanding (Annex IV of the Arrangement)
English, PDF, 344kb
The Commercial Interest Reference Rates valid from 15 October 2016 to 14 November 2016 have been published (revision of US rate on 12 September).