Boosting trade is one of the surest drivers of sustainable growth, explains Ian Wood, Deputy Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the OECD, in this OECD Insights blog post.
Companies are increasingly producing goods and services through supply chains spanning different countries.
This publication provides preliminary, quantitative estimates of direct budgetary support and tax expenditures supporting the production or consumption of fossil fuels in selected OECD member countries. The information has been compiled as part of the OECD’s programme of work to develop a better understanding of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the international dialogue on fossil-fuel subsidy reform. It is also intended to inform the ongoing efforts of G20 nations to reform fossil-fuel subsidies.
For each of the 24 OECD countries covered, the Inventory provides a succinct summary of its energy economy, and of the budgetary and tax-related measures provided at the central-government level (and, in the case of federal countries, for selected sub-national units of government) relating to fossil-fuel production or consumption.
Many measures listed in this inventory are relative preferences within a particular country’s tax system rather than absolute support that can be readily compared across countries, and for that reason no national totals are provided.
Trade is essential to global economic recovery, says Professor Jagdish Bhagwati in this interview with OECD. He also challenges the fear that trade 'takes' jobs from developed countries, pointing out that firms from developing countries are now creating jobs in richer economies.
OECD papers on trade and environment, free to access and download, on how trade affects the environment and how environmental concerns affect trade, covering a wide range of issues and countries.
"At the end of the day, this is what the G20 is about: its “raison d’être” is to show leadership and equip the global economy with an efficient framework for policy coordination. And trade in raw materials and in food commodities should be no exception to this.", said M. Gurría.
The effects of globalisation have been at the forefront of public debate in recent years, fuelled on the one hand by the large benefits of integrated markets, and on the other hand, by the detrimental adjustment effects often experienced by many economies as a result. Knowing how trade has been evolving over time and the role policy has played in this evolution are critical to understanding the globalisation debate and grasping the lessons for future policy development. The comparative advantage hypothesis has been suggested as one of the principal explanations of international trade and of the benefits associated with openness. It has also provided the intellectual underpinnings for most trade policy in the past 50 years. This book collects OECD work that builds on recent contributions to the theory and empirics of comparative advantage, putting particular emphasis on the role policy can play in shaping trade.
Exchange rate levels affect trade flows in agriculture and in the manufacturing and mining sector in China, the Euro area and the United States, though they do not explain in their entirety the trade imbalances in these three economies, this paper finds.
This Inventory provides reliable and comparable data on support or tax expenditures for fossil fuel production or use in OECD countries. Reforming fossil fuel subsidies can contribute to achieving economic and fiscal objectives, while also tackling environmental problems like climate change.