This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross-border policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within West Africa to develop cross-border initiatives in a number of ways. Combining these two analyses with the perceptions of regional policy makers as to which sub-regions they consider as priorities for cross-border co-operation, the publication concludes with the identification of areas that are most pertinent for regional integration. The report thus provides the analytical foundations for local and regional actors to develop more effective, tailored initiatives that can enhance cross-border co-operation in West Africa.
This OECD publication provides statistics on international trade in services by partner country for 31 OECD countries plus the European Union, the Euro area and the Russian Federation as well as links to definitions and methodological notes. The data concern trade between residents and non-residents of countries and are reported within the framework of the Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services. This book includes summary tables of trade patterns listing the main trading partners for each country and by broad service category. Series are shown in US dollars and cover the period 2011-2015.
An estimated 22% of the world’s largest firms are now effectively under state control, this is the highest percentage in decades. These firms are likely to remain a prominent feature of the global marketplace in the near future. The upsurge of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as global competitors has given rise to concerns related to a level playing field. Some business competitors and observers claim that preferential treatment granted by governments to SOEs in return for public policy obligations carried out at home can give SOEs a competitive edge in their foreign expansion. The OECD has taken a multidisciplinary approach, looking at the issue from the competition, investment, corporate governance and trade policy perspectives. The report aims to sort fact from fiction, and develop a stronger understanding, based on empirical evidence, on how to address growing policy concerns with regard to SOE internationalisation. The report concludes that although there is no clear evidence of systematic abusive behaviour by SOE investors, frictions need to be addressed, in view of keeping the global economy open to trade and investment.
English, Excel, 647kb
This excel file contains all the historical interest rates used in the Export Credits. These include CIRR since 1983, ASU CIRR since 2007, RESU CIRR since 2009 and NSU CIRR since 2009 - version dated 5 December 2016.
English, PDF, 360kb
Minimum interest rates to apply to official financing support for export credits covered by the nuclear power plants Understanding (Annex II of the Arrangement).
English, Excel, 362kb
Minimum interest rates to apply to official financing support for export credits covered by the renewable energy, climate change mitigation and adaptation and water projects Sector Understanding (Annex IV of the Arrangement)
English, PDF, 344kb
The Commercial Interest Reference Rates valid from 15 December 2016 to 14 January 2017 have been published.
English, PDF, 345kb
The Commercial Interest Reference Rates for Civil Aircraft valid from 15 December 2016 to 14 January 2017.
English, Excel, 44kb
ASU historical Margin Benchmark for civil aircraft.
G20 merchandise trade growth remains sluggish in Q3 2016