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What incentives do our partners have to open their markets to our businesses when their own businesses have full access to ours? EU commissioners Karel De Gucht and Michel Barnier give the example of the European Union's new public procurement instrument.
Exchange rate levels affect trade flows in agriculture and in the manufacturing and mining sector in China, the Euro area and the United States, though they do not explain in their entirety the trade imbalances in these three economies, this paper finds.
This report features recent regional trade agreements with substantive environmental content, focusing on agreements between New Zealand and Hong Kong (China); Chinese Taipei and Nicaragua; and European Union trade agreements with Korea, Montenegro and Serbia.
How do services commitments in RTAs influence multilateral negotiations? Through 4 case studies of the RTAs of Chile, Japan, the EU and the US, this paper looks at political economy issues underlying RTAs in general, as well as the specific concessions that countries make on trade in services.
Transparent design and implementation of domestic regulation reduces business costs for the public and private sector, according to these case studies from Australia, the European Union, the United Kingdom and the United States.
To what extent do governments use international standards in their technical regulations? This paper looks at the electrical household appliance, natural gas equipment and telephony sectors in Canada, Japan, Korea, Mexico, United States and the European Union.
Studies include: textile and clothing sectors in Bangladesh, Colombia, Lesotho, Mauritius, USA, Australia and the Slovak Republic; the steel industry in Europe and the US; and shipbuilding in the EU, Japan and Australia.
Case studies include: motor vehicle sector in Japan, Poland, South Africa and Australia; health services in the USA and Mexico, Japan, Philippines and Thailand; international IT sourcing in the United States, India and Europe plus IBM and Infosys.