Working Papers


  • 2-September-2015

    English

    Reducing inequality and poverty in Portugal

    Portugal has one of the most unequal income distributions in Europe and poverty levels are high. The economic crisis has halted a long-term gradual decline in both inequality and poverty and the number of poor households is rising, with children and youths being particularly affected. Unemployment is one of the principal reasons why household incomes declined.

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  • 21-August-2015

    English

    Improving public sector efficiency for more inclusive growth in Latvia

    This working paper explores avenues to improve public sector efficiency in Latvia, a catching-up and ageing economy where spending needs are large.

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  • 23-July-2015

    English

    Fiscal constitutions: an empirical assessment

    Fiscal constitutions comprise the set of rules and frameworks guiding fiscal policy that are enshrined in a country’s fundamental laws.

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  • 22-July-2015

    English

    Sustaining the economic expansion in New Zealand

    Ensuring that permanent spending or tax cuts are implemented in a sustainable manner would encourage the strong fiscal position that New Zealand needs to meet potentially large macroeconomic shocks and long-run ageing-related costs.

  • 3-July-2015

    English

    Macroeconomic uncertainties, prudent debt targets and fiscal rules

    The objective of this paper is to define long-run prudent debt targets for OECD countries and country-specific fiscal rules. To this end, a semi-structural macroeconomic model for OECD countries and primary balance reaction functions are estimated.

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  • 3-July-2015

    English

    Limits to government debt sustainability

    The objective of this paper is to calculate endogenous government debt limits given the markets assessment of the probability to default.

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  • 3-July-2015

    English

    Government debt indicators: understanding the data

    This paper examines the various issues in defining and measuring debt, and explores other data which could be useful, both within and beyond the general government debt concept, to better track and analyse fiscal risks and sustainability issues.

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  • 2-July-2015

    English

    Impacts of Carbon Prices on Indicators of Competitiveness

    Concerns around potential losses of competitiveness as a result of unilateral action on carbon pricing are often central for policy makers contemplating the introduction of such instruments. This paper is a review of literature on ex post empirical evaluations of the impacts of carbon prices on indicators of competitiveness as employed in the literature, including employment, output or exports, at different levels of aggregation.

  • 2-July-2015

    English

    Competitiveness Impacts of the German Electricity Tax

    Proposals to increase environmentally related taxes are often challenged on competitiveness grounds. The concern is that value creation in certain sectors might decline domestically if a country introduces environmentally related taxes unilaterally. This paper provides evidence on the short-term competitiveness impacts of the German electricity tax introduced unilaterally in 1999.

  • 22-June-2015

    English

    Competitiveness Impacts of the German Electricity Tax - Environment Working Paper

    Proposals to increase environmentally related taxes are often challenged on competitiveness grounds. The concern is that value creation in certain sectors might decline domestically if a country introduces environmentally related taxes unilaterally. This paper provides evidence on the short-term competitiveness impacts of the German electricity tax introduced unilaterally in 1999.

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