English, PDF, 512kb
This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Austria. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.
English, PDF, 513kb
This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Estonia. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.
English, PDF, 512kb
This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for New Zealand. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.
English, PDF, 512kb
This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Brazil. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.
Across the OECD, GDP per capita is converging. In contrast, regional disparities – or differences in GDP per capita across jurisdictions – are rising, mainly as a result of widening productivity differences. Fiscal decentralisation could help reduce them again. According to new OECD research, assigning more ownsource revenue to sub-national governments dampens regional GDP disparities and underpins regional convergence.
This is the first edition of "Tax Policy Reforms in the OECD". This annual series of reports aims to track and compare tax policy developments over time across OECD countries. This year’s edition focuses on the tax reforms that were introduced in 2015 and identifies the most significant tax policy reforms as well as common tax policy trends across groups of countries. The Report is primarily based on responses to the OECD Tax Policy Reform Questionnaire which is sent yearly to all member countries to collect information on tax reforms and their expected revenue effects. Monitoring tax policy reforms across the OECD and understanding the context in which they were undertaken is crucial to inform tax policy discussions but also to support member and non-member countries in their assessment and design of future tax reforms.
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This report consists of two parts. Part I is a report by the OECD Secretary-General regarding (A) the G20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project; (B) Tax transparency; (C) Tax policy tools to support sustainable and inclusive growth; and (D) Tax and development. Part II is a Progress Report to the G20 by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes.
Addressing base erosion and profit shifting is a key priority of governments around the globe. In 2013, OECD and G20 countries, working together on an equal footing, adopted a 15-point Action Plan to address BEPS. Beyond securing revenues by realigning taxation with economic activities and value creation, the OECD/G20 BEPS Project aims to create a single set of consensus-based international tax rules to address BEPS, and hence to protect tax bases while offering increased certainty and predictability to taxpayers. A key focus of this work is to eliminate double non-taxation. However in doing so, new rules should not result in double taxation, unwarranted compliance burdens or restrictions to legitimate cross-border activity. This Explanatory Statement offers an overview of the BEPS Project and outcomes.
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The OECD published comments received on the discussion draft on elements of the design and operation of the group ratio rule.
This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Pakistan.
The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 130 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.
The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.
The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.