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The complexities and fragmentation of Brazil’s tax system make it particularly onerous to enterprises, making it a priority for reform. The state-level VAT has often been used as an industrial policy instrument, resulting in predatory tax competition among the states. Remaining federal levies on enterprise turnover are detrimental to the competitiveness of Brazilian exports. The burden of payroll taxes and social security
The Kingdom of Bahrain has recently signed double taxation conventions with Bulgaria (26 June 2009) and Austria (2 July 2009) that provide for exchange of information in accordance with the OECD standard. These agreements bring to 12 the number of agreements that Bahrain has signed that meet the OECD standard. As a result, Bahrain can be considered as having substantially implemented the internationally agreed standard in this area.
In a statement following their 8 July meeting in L’Aquila, the G8 leaders stated "all jurisdictions must now quickly implement their commitments... an appropriate follow up framework is needed to fully benefit from this renewed emphasis on tax information exchange and transparency... We ask the OECD to swiftly address these challenges, propose further steps and report by the time of the next G20 Finance Ministers’ meeting.”
This pilot study presents indicators that assess sub-central government (SCG) spending power by policy area. Traditional indicators are often misleading as they underestimate the impact of central government regulation on sub-central spending patterns.
The tax system is relying too much on relatively growth distorting taxes. Despite reforms, labour taxation continues to contribute to substantial labour market traps while corporate tax rates are relatively high. Moreover, most tax bases are narrowed by numerous exemptions and reductions.
Securing fiscal sustainability requires a reform of the fiscal federalism system. The current transfer system does not align spending and taxing responsibilities and the organisation of the federation is not promoting public spending efficiency.
Public finances are shifting further away from fiscal sustainability, emphasising the need for the reform of the fiscal policy making and strategies to deal with the costs of ageing.
Luxembourg has signed a protocol to its double taxation convention with Norway, bringing to 12 the number of agreements it has on exchange of information for tax purposes.
This paper analyses trends in and driving forces of the revenue composition of sub-central governments (SCG).
To shed further light on this issue in the context of emerging market economies, this paper uses Brazilian data to estimate the determinants of the current account in a smooth transition vector autoregressive (ST VAR) setting.