Publications & Documents


  • 26-September-2016

    English

    Effective Carbon Rates - Pricing CO2 through Taxes and Emissions Trading Systems

    To tackle climate change, CO2 emissions need to be cut. Pricing carbon is one of the most effective and lowest-cost ways of inducing such cuts. This report presents the first full analysis of the use of carbon pricing on energy in 41 OECD and G20 economies, covering 80% of global energy use and of CO2 emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. It shows the entire distribution of effective carbon rates by country and the composition of effective carbon rates by six economic sectors within each country. Carbon prices are seen to be often very low, but some countries price significant shares of their carbon emissions. The ‘carbon pricing gap’, a synthetic indicator showing the extent to which effective carbon rates fall short of pricing emissions at EUR 30 per tonne, the low-end estimate of the cost of carbon used in this study, sheds light on potential ways of strengthening carbon pricing.

  • 26-September-2016

    English

    Latin America and the Caribbean: Low personal income taxes lead to lower taxes on wages compared with OECD

    Taxes on the labour income of the average worker in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries totalled 21.7% of total labour costs in 2013, one-third lower than in OECD countries, where the average was 35.9%, according to the first edition of Taxing Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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  • 26-September-2016

    English, PDF, 513kb

    Environmental taxes: Key findings for the Netherlands

    This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for the Netherlands. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.

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  • 26-September-2016

    English, PDF, 513kb

    Environmental taxes: Key findings for the United States

    This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for the United States. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.

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  • 26-September-2016

    English, PDF, 512kb

    Environmental taxes: Key findings for France

    This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for France. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.

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  • 26-September-2016

    English, PDF, 512kb

    Environmental taxes: Key findings for Hungary

    This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Hungary. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.

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  • 26-September-2016

    English, PDF, 513kb

    Environmental taxes: Key findings for Japan

    This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Japan. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.

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  • 26-September-2016

    English, PDF, 513kb

    Environmental taxes: Key findings for the Slovak Republic

    This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for the Slovak Republic. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.

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  • 26-September-2016

    English, PDF, 512kb

    Environmental taxes: Key findings for Ireland

    This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Ireland. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.

    Related Documents
  • 26-September-2016

    English, PDF, 512kb

    Environmental taxes: Key findings for Iceland

    This country note provides an environmental tax and carbon pricing profile for Iceland. It shows environmentally related tax revenues, taxes on energy use and effective carbon rates.

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