Publications & Documents


  • 1-November-2016

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Dominican Republic 2016 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Dominican Republic.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 130 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 1-November-2016

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Marshall Islands 2016 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Marshall Islands.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 130 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

  • 26-September-2016

    English

    Taxing Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean 2016

    This new high profile report provides details of taxes paid on wages in twenty economies in Latin America and the Caribbean.  It covers: personal income taxes and social security contributions paid by employees; social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by employers; cash benefits received by in-work families.

    It illustrates how these taxes and benefits are calculated in each member country and examines how they impact on household incomes. The results also enable quantitative cross-country comparisons of labour cost levels and the overall tax and benefit position of single persons and families on different levels of earnings.

    The publication shows the amounts of taxes and social security contributions levied and cash benefits received for eight different family types which vary by a combination of household composition and household type.  It also presents the resulting average and marginal tax rates (i.e. the tax burden). Average tax rates show that part of gross wage earnings or total labour costs which is taken in tax and social security contributions (both before and after cash benefits). Marginal tax rates show the part of a small increase of gross earnings or total labour costs that is paid in these levies.

    The data presented can be used in academic research and to analyse tax, social and economic policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • 13-September-2016

    English

    Tax Policy Reforms in the OECD 2016

    This is the first edition of "Tax Policy Reforms in the OECD". This annual series of reports aims to track and compare tax policy developments over time across OECD countries. This year’s edition focuses on the tax reforms that were introduced in 2015 and identifies the most significant tax policy reforms as well as common tax policy trends across groups of countries. The Report is primarily based on responses to the OECD Tax Policy Reform Questionnaire which is sent yearly to all member countries to collect information on tax reforms and their expected revenue effects. Monitoring  tax policy reforms across the OECD and understanding the context in which they were undertaken is crucial to inform tax policy discussions but also to support member and non-member countries in their assessment and design of future tax reforms.

  • 13-September-2016

    English

    Effective Carbon Rates - Pricing CO2 through Taxes and Emissions Trading Systems

    To tackle climate change, CO2 emissions need to be cut. Pricing carbon is one of the most effective and lowest-cost ways of inducing such cuts. This report presents the first full analysis of the use of carbon pricing on energy in 41 OECD and G20 economies, covering 80% of global energy use and of CO2 emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. It shows the entire distribution of effective carbon rates by country and the composition of effective carbon rates by six economic sectors within each country. Carbon prices are seen to be often very low, but some countries price significant shares of their carbon emissions. The ‘carbon pricing gap’, a synthetic indicator showing the extent to which effective carbon rates fall short of pricing emissions at EUR 30 per tonne, the low-end estimate of the cost of carbon used in this study, sheds light on potential ways of strengthening carbon pricing.

  • 26-August-2016

    English

    BEPS Project Explanatory Statement - 2015 Final Reports

    Addressing base erosion and profit shifting is a key priority of governments around the globe. In 2013, OECD and G20 countries, working together on an equal footing, adopted a 15-point Action Plan to address BEPS. Beyond securing revenues by realigning taxation with economic activities and value creation, the OECD/G20 BEPS Project aims to create a single set of consensus-based international tax rules to address BEPS, and hence to protect tax bases while offering increased certainty and predictability to taxpayers. A key focus of this work is to eliminate double non-taxation. However in doing so, new rules should not result in double taxation, unwarranted compliance burdens or restrictions to legitimate cross-border activity. This Explanatory Statement offers an overview of the BEPS Project and outcomes.

  • 25-August-2016

    English

    Multilateral Convention for tax co-operation breaks through the 100 mark

    In a ceremony at OECD Headquarters in Paris today, Burkina Faso, Malaysia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Samoa signed the Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, bringing the number of participating jurisdictions to 103.

    Related Documents
  • 25-August-2016

    English, PDF, 3,229kb

    Comments received on the discussion draft on elements of the design and operation of the group ratio rule

    The OECD published comments received on the discussion draft on elements of the design and operation of the group ratio rule.

    Related Documents
  • 25-August-2016

    English

    Public comments received on the discussion draft on the design and operation of the group ratio rule under BEPS Action 4

    OECD publishes comments received on the discussion draft on the elements of the design and operation of the group ratio rule under Action 4.

  • 24-August-2016

    English

    Public comments received on the conforming amendments to Chapter IX of the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines

    On 4 July 2016, interested parties were invited to review the conforming amendments to Chapter IX of the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines, "Transfer Pricing Aspects of Business Restructurings". The OECD is grateful to the commentators for their input and now publishes the comments received.

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