This paper provides a broad overview of policy goals and instruments and commonly used performance and policy indicators related to land transport.
The process of fiscal consolidation and the need to step up the poor long term economic performance provide an opportunity to implement tax measures to improve efficiency and rebalance the economy.
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This chapter discusses the size of current consolidation requirements and the pace at which budget positions should be strengthened in the context of a set of macroeconomic projections to 2025.
Large shifts in countries’ external current account positions can be disruptive, often reflecting sudden stops in the flows of external finance and leading to exchange rate and banking crises.
Turkey has considerably improved its terms of access to the global capital market. Progress in macroeconomic fundamentals has enhanced credibility and reduced risk premia and capital costs.
The oil price hike in 2007-08 underlined the vulnerability of Indonesia’s energy subsidy policy to oil price volatility. In addition to entailing significant economic and environmental costs, energy subsidies put pressure on the public budget and benefit mostly rich households.
The United States faces challenging budgetary prospects, as do most other OECD countries. The federal budget deficit widened considerably during the recession, reaching about 10% of GDP in both 2009 and 2010, reflecting the operation of automatic stabilizers and the policy response to the crisis
How can governments reap the potential benefits of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the provision of infrastructure?
Hungary has faced a considerable challenge to regain credibility following persistent and high fiscal deficits. Efforts during recent years have produced substantial results. These and other points are discussed in this working paper.
This paper presents a simulation model of the main budget aggregates of federal, provincial and territorial governments in Canada. It also contains an analysis of the cyclicality of Canadian governments’ fiscal policies between 1984 and 2007.