Countries must boost international co-operation as they redesign their tax systems to meet future revenue needs and economic competitiveness challenges, said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría.
India faces the same challenges as every OECD member country: how to adapt its domestic tax system and its international tax policies to a borderless economy, and how to ensure that the approaches embraced today will be well suited to meet the needs of the economy of tomorrow, said OECD Secretary-General. OECD can offer to India a forum for sharing worldwide experiences and benchmarking national policies against best practices, a
This publication contains the official text of the Multilateral Convention on Mutual Assistance in Tax Matters as amended by the 2010 Protocol. The original Convention was developed jointly by the Council of Europe and the OECD and opened for signature by the member states of both organisations on 25 January 1988. The original Convention was amended in 2010 to align it to the international standard on information exchange for tax purposes and to open it to all countries, responding to the call of the G20 to make it easier for all countries to secure the benefits of the new co-operative tax environment. The amended Convention entered into force on 1 June 2011.
This Convention aims to help governments enforce their tax laws, provides an international legal framework for co-operation among countries in countering international tax avoidance and evasion. It offers a variety of tools for administrative co-operation in tax matters, providing all forms of exchange of information, assistance in tax collection and service of documents. It also facilitates joint audits and information sharing to counter other serious crimes (e.g. money laundering, corruption) when certain conditions are met. It preserves the rights of taxpayers, provides extensive safeguards to protect the confidentiality of the information exchanged, in particular in relation to personal data. The operation of this self-standing multilateral convention is overseen by a Co-ordinating Body comprised of the Parties to the Convention.
In the wake of the recent financial and economic crisis, many OECD countries face the challenge of restoring public finances while still supporting growth. This report investigates how tax structures can best be designed to support GDP per capita growth.
The analysis suggests a tax and economic growth ranking order according to which corporate taxes are the most harmful type of tax for economic growth, followed by personal income taxes and then consumption taxes, with recurrent taxes on immovable property being the least harmful tax. Growth-oriented tax reform measures include tax base broadening and a reduction in the top marginal personal income tax rates. Some degree of support for R&D through the tax system may help to increase private spending on innovation.
But implementing pro-growth tax reforms may not be easy. This report identifies those public and political economy tax reform strategies that will allow policy makers to reconcile differing tax policy objectives and overcome obstacles to reform. It stresses that with clear vision, strong leadership and solid tax policy analysis, growth-oriented tax reform can indeed be realised.
Many countries will likely face the need to increase tax revenues, as part of fiscal consolidation, during the next few years. But how is this best done? And what are the considerations when choosing between raising tax rates and broadening the tax base by scaling back or abolishing targeted tax provisions (such as allowances, exemptions and preferential rates)? This report aims to answer such questions by taking a close look at the economic and political factors that influence governments’ tax decisions.
Although many countries have broadened their tax bases over the past 30 years, targeted tax provisions, notably tax expenditures, continue to be significant. Like public expenditure, targeted tax reliefs mean that (other) tax rates need to be higher in order to finance these reliefs. This report therefore discusses whether such tax provisions continue to be worthwhile. It includes an annex covering country-specific revenue forgone estimates of tax expenditures for selected OECD countries.
This report also identifies political factors, including the lobbying of influential interest groups, as the main obstacles to base-broadening reforms, and it considers how reforms can be best packaged and presented to overcome such obstacles.
Solving the world’s environmental problems could take a significant toll on economic growth if only today’s technologies are available. We know that innovation – the creation and adoption of new cleaner technologies and know-how – provides a means to achieve local and global environmental goals at significantly lower costs. Innovation is also a major driver of economic growth.
OECD governments are increasingly using environmentally related taxes because they are typically one of the most effective policy tools available. Exploring the relationship between environmentally related taxation and innovation is critical to understanding the full impacts of this policy instrument as well as one potential facet of “green growth.” By putting a price on pollution, do environmentally related taxes spur innovation? What types of innovation result? Does the design of the tax play a critical role? What is the effect of this innovation?
In analysing these questions, this report draws on case studies that cover Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Israel and others. It covers a wide set of environmental issues and technologies, as well as the economic and policy contexts. The research methods range from econometric analysis to interviews with business owners and executives. The report also explores the use of environmentally related taxes in OECD countries and outlines considerations for policymakers when implementing these taxes.
Green growth policies can stimulate economic growth while preventing environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and unsustainable natural resource use. The results from this publication will contribute to the Green Growth Strategy being developed by the OECD as a practical policy package for governments to harness the potential of greener growth.
Equitable and efficient tax systems and administrations have an important role to play in securing domestic funding for development, according to Angel Gurría. He added that African policy makers need to reform tax systems and generate revenues, to complement external sources of financing, such as official development assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment.
The financial and economic crisis had a devastating impact on bank profits, with loss-making banks reporting global commercial losses of around USD 400 billion in 2008. This comprehensive report sets the market context for bank losses and provides an overview of the tax treatment of such losses in 17 OECD countries; describes the tax risks that arise in relation to bank losses from the perspective of both banks and revenue bodies; outlines the incentives that give rise to those risks; and describes the tools revenue bodies have to manage these potential compliance risks. It concludes with recommendations for revenue bodies and for banks on how risks involving bank losses can best be managed and reduced.
As a result of details provided to the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, Brazil and Indonesia are now ranked in the category of jurisdictions that have substantially implemented the internationally agreed tax standard.
Average tax and social security burdens on employment incomes fell slightly in 24 out of 30 OECD countries last year as governments struggled to shore up faltering economies amid the worst recession in decades.