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Trade in processed agricultural products, such as chocolates, steaks or wines, has increased between emerging economies, as have exports from emerging to high-income countries. However, trade in these products is still dominated by high-income countries.
The deployment of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technologies depends on international trade in services such as business, telecommunications and construction and related engineering, typically through cross-border Internet trade and temporary movement of personnel.
How are environmental provisions incorporated in regional trade agreements (RTAs)? What are the environmental impacts of RTAs? Participants at a recent OECD workshop discussed these issues and shared ideas on co-operation activities, consultation mechanisms and dispute settlement.
This report features recent regional trade agreements with substantive environmental content, focusing on agreements between New Zealand and Hong Kong (China); Chinese Taipei and Nicaragua; and European Union trade agreements with Korea, Montenegro and Serbia.
More efficient and equitable agricultural policies will require better targeting of income support and, in turn, better information on the income and wealth situation of the agricultural population, according to this study of Canada, the United States and the European Union.
A focus on reducing market price support is the key to effective agricultural policy reform, says this study of farm reforms in the United States, European Union, Canada, Japan, Korea, Mexico and Switzerland.
South-South and Latin American regional trade agreements (RTAs) have progressed most in eliminating agricultural trade tariffs. However, the dairy, meat, sugar and cereal sectors are still often protected by exemptions such as tariff rate quotas (TRQs).
Emerging economies are increasingly important in the pharmaceutical sector as markets and as research and development (R&D) participants. Further involvement by these economies in international trade facilitating measures will help trade, innovation and globalisation of R&D.
How do services commitments in RTAs influence multilateral negotiations? Through 4 case studies of the RTAs of Chile, Japan, the EU and the US, this paper looks at political economy issues underlying RTAs in general, as well as the specific concessions that countries make on trade in services.
Technology, lower transport costs and trade in intermediate inputs and tasks have given countries access to additional labour and capital than what is just available within their borders. Policy makers should focus on these changing dynamics in resource bases.