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Technology, lower transport costs and trade in intermediate inputs and tasks have given countries access to additional labour and capital than what is just available within their borders. Policy makers should focus on these changing dynamics in resource bases.
Transparent design and implementation of domestic regulation reduces business costs for the public and private sector, according to these case studies from Australia, the European Union, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Access to international trade in intermediate inputs boosts innovation and productivity for domestic firms, according to this study. However, these dynamic gains from trade depend on complementary policies such as access to finance, access to skilled labour and macroeconomic stability.
Trade can be impeded by inefficient transport infrastructure, border procedures or information flows. Better logistics services reduce trade costs for businesses and improve the competitiveness of a country's exports, according to this study. (OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 108)
Farm risk management policy in New Zealand centres on natural disaster assistance and preventing pest and disease incursions. New Zealand should strengthen a 'multi-activity enterprise' view of farming, reduce uncertainty about future environmental regulations and improve knowledge on risks.
Dutch agricultural risk management should develop an ex ante policy framework for assistance in catastrophic events such as livestock epidemics and climatic disasters, as well as a longer-term strategy on insurance.
Farm risk management in Canada is overcrowded with policies and unable to signal layers of risk that farmers should manage themselves. Canada should better define its risk programmes: income stabilization payments should focus on a middle range of risk, while farmers manage normal business risk.
Spain's agricultural insurance system must evolve to allow more competition, differentiate marketable and catastrophic risks and reduce subsidies for marketable lines. Spain should also develop a framework for catastrophic risk and facilitate a wider choice of risk management tools for farmers.
Australia should improve governance of its drought policy, consider developing an insurance market for drought risk and help farmers adapt to climate change, says this review of agricultural risk management in the country. (OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Working Paper No. 39)