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Internationalised firms in developing economies tend to employ more workers and pay higher wages than firms that deal exclusively with the domestic market, according to this paper that shows the links between global value chains (GVCs) and labour market outcomes. Engagement in international activities by firms provides greater opportunities for women to enter the formal employment market, the paper also shows.
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How do global value chains (GVCs) impact employment markets in developing countries? This paper reviews the literature on the subject, focusing on the labour market impacts of three processes that lie at the core of GVC development: importing, exporting, and foreign direct investment (FDI). The paper includes two case studies — electronics in Asia and services in Chile - that demonstrate the complexity of the issues involved.
The potential multilateralisation of government procurement commitments in regional trade agreements (RTAs) presents many issues and challenges. To what extent do RTAs go beyond the 2012 revised Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), and how do they differ among trading partners? This report surveys 47 RTAs in force with government procurement provisions where an OECD member is a party.
Understanding trade costs is essential for formulating policy interventions designed to reduce such costs. This report synthesises all OECD work on cost factors across the entire trade chain.
To what extent has the greater external exposure of the Brazilian economy in the past decade contributed to the evolution of employment in the country? This paper finds that Brazilian exports expanded vigorously in the 2000s and contributed positively to employment generation, though this contribution was relatively small.
What is the role of services in international merchandise trade, especially as new technology changes the way production is organised? This study analyses the relationship between competitiveness in manufacturing and the quality of key supporting services. Three primary indicators of competitiveness are considered: the degree of product differentiation, unit prices obtained in export markets and the duration of trade.
To benefit fully from cross-border trade in electricity, interconnected countries need to establish a non-discriminatory trading regime based on co-operation and co-ordination, says this study of trade in renewables-based electric power in Europe.
With a growing integration via trade and investment, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) that have traditionally been oriented towards domestic markets increasingly compete with private firms in the global market place. This paper presents a conceptual discussion of how potential SOE advantages can generate cross-border effects.