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This OECD inventory reports export taxes, prohibitions, licensing requirements and other measures by which governments regulate the export of agricultural and industrial raw materials.
Instead of resorting to trade measures such as export restrictions, Chile manages its minerals sector through a combination of balanced taxation, stable investment measures, good management of tax revenue, exchange rate policy and initiatives aimed at producing a multiplier effect of economy-wide development, according to this study.
This paper examines how three multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) incorporate transparency into their regulatory regimes: CITES (endangered species, especially tropical timber), the Basel Convention (hazardous e-waste), and the Kimberley Process (conflict diamonds)
Governments appear increasingly inclined to apply border and domestic measures to restrict the export of raw materials. For industrial raw materials, the OECD is constructing an Inventory of measures that have been applied since 2009. The underlying survey covers some 100 countries, some 15 types of measures and most minerals, metals and wood. This paper analyses 2009-2010 data collected so far for the minerals and metals sector.
World Trade Organisation (WTO) disciplines in the policy area of export restrictions could benefit in a number of ways from the approaches found in some regional trade agreements, according to this study.
Exchange rate volatility impacts trade flows in small, open economies more than for larger economies, according to this study of trade in the agricultural and the manufacturing and mining sectors of Chile and New Zealand.
Exchange rate levels affect trade flows in agriculture and in the manufacturing and mining sector in China, the Euro area and the United States, though they do not explain in their entirety the trade imbalances in these three economies, this paper finds.
Transparent design and implementation of domestic regulation reduces business costs for the public and private sector, according to these case studies from Australia, the European Union, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Export restrictions on raw materials can have a negative impact on the efficient allocation of resources, international trade and the competitiveness and development of industries in both importing and exporting countries, according to this collection of papers.
To what extent do governments use international standards in their technical regulations? This paper looks at the electrical household appliance, natural gas equipment and telephony sectors in Canada, Japan, Korea, Mexico, United States and the European Union.