With the development and entry into force of the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement in 1995, the international community made a commitment to strengthen Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs), established to deal with the management of shared high seas resources. This study takes stock of the changes made in RFMOs, highlighting a gradual process of improvement that has translated into significant success stories. While
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Maritime transport costs have a significant impact on the trade in agricultural goods. Maritime transport costs represent a high proportion of the imported value of agricultural products -- 10% on average, which is a similar level of magnitude as agricultural tariffs.
The sources of risk in agriculture are numerous and diverse, ranging from events related to climate and weather conditions to animal diseases; from changes in agriculture commodities prices to changes in fertilizer and other input prices; and from financial uncertainties to policy and regulatory risks. Agricultural risks are not independent, but rather are linked both to each other and as part of a system that includes all available
The OECD, World Trade Organisation and the UN’s Conference of Trade and Development have called on the leaders of the G20 countries to make a stronger commitment to open trade and investment as the global economy begins its recovery from the crisis.
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Societal concerns relating to agriculture play an important role in the development of national policies, with implications for trade and international relations. This study looks at how these concerns are addressed both at national level and in the context of WTO provisions.
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This paper discusses the economic impacts of the phase-out of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA), which was provided for under the 1994 Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC).
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This paper examines key trade and trade related issues facing South Africa and describes South Africa’s re-entry into the global trade architecture and its economic growth in the context of its trade performance.
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This study examines economic implications of India’s trade and trade policy reforms during the period from 1990 to 2007. It first describes India’s economic growth and the composition and performance of its trade at the product and broad sector level.
This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of pears in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade
The Participants to the Arrangement on Officially Supported Export Credits have updated their responses [link to TAD/PG(2009)17/FINAL], as at 30 June 2009, to questions concerning the measures taken at a national level in response to the global financial crisis.