Innovation is critical to creating new sources of growth, and trade can strengthen innovation in the business sector. Technology diffusion, competition and exports are channels through which trade affects innovation. These channels along with the related policy issues are discussed in this report.
This publication provides preliminary, quantitative estimates of direct budgetary support and tax expenditures supporting the production or consumption of fossil fuels in selected OECD member countries. The information has been compiled as part of the OECD’s programme of work to develop a better understanding of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the international dialogue on fossil-fuel subsidy reform. It is also intended to inform the ongoing efforts of G20 nations to reform fossil-fuel subsidies.
For each of the 24 OECD countries covered, the Inventory provides a succinct summary of its energy economy, and of the budgetary and tax-related measures provided at the central-government level (and, in the case of federal countries, for selected sub-national units of government) relating to fossil-fuel production or consumption.
Many measures listed in this inventory are relative preferences within a particular country’s tax system rather than absolute support that can be readily compared across countries, and for that reason no national totals are provided.
Low stocks to use ratios of recent years were one of the contributory factors to the grain price spike in 2007-08, says this paper on international stockholding arrangements with economic provisions for stabilising world agricultural commodity prices.
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A first step to facilitating trade in energy-efficient products is to encourage developing and emerging economies to reform their policies in trade and energy-pricing, according to this paper which draws on work by Japan’s Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).
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Net Operating Cash Flow 1999-2010 from the members of the Working Party on Export Credits and Credit Guarantees.
Recent years have witnessed a sharp increase in many commodity prices. This report examines the question of whether commodity price volatility has materially changed with the rapid run up in world prices in 2006-09, followed by an equally sharp decline in many commodity prices.
Ensuring stronger productivity growth is essential in responding to increased demand for agricultural products. This report looks at developments in productivity and competitiveness in the agricultural and food processing sectors, focusing on research and development (R&D).
Trade policy reforms have a role to play in reducing large current account imbalances, this paper finds. A multilateral and co-ordinated approach to reducing imbalances, involving macroeconomic, exchange rate and structural reforms, is essential for achieving maximum benefits for all countries.<
The OECD Global Forum on Agriculture 2011 had as its focus improving agricultural market information and analysis for better policy decisions and enhanced food security.
This report reviews economic concepts of innovation, research and development (R&D), productivity and competitiveness, and their linkages. It then discusses evidence on developments in productivity and competitiveness in the agricultural and food processing sectors and on the relationship between agricultural productivity and farm size, factor intensity, farm specialisation, human capital, consumer demand, the natural environment, investments in general infrastructures and R&D, regulations, and agricultural policies. It describes developments in public and private investments in agricultural R&D and outlines their positive impact on productivity growth. Finally, it suggests an “innovation systems” approach would help understand better how innovation translates into productivity growth.