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A first step to facilitating trade in energy-efficient products is to encourage developing and emerging economies to reform their policies in trade and energy-pricing, according to this paper which draws on work by Japan’s Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).
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Net Operating Cash Flow 1999-2010 from the members of the Working Party on Export Credits and Credit Guarantees.
Recent years have witnessed a sharp increase in many commodity prices. This report examines the question of whether commodity price volatility has materially changed with the rapid run up in world prices in 2006-09, followed by an equally sharp decline in many commodity prices.
Ensuring stronger productivity growth is essential in responding to increased demand for agricultural products. This report looks at developments in productivity and competitiveness in the agricultural and food processing sectors, focusing on research and development (R&D).
This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels standard. This brochure illustrates the standard text on Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels. It demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels. The brochure also includes a USB key containing the electronic version of the publication.
This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current asparagus standard. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text on asparagus. It demonstrates the quality parameters on high-quality photographs. Thus it is a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade in asparagus. The brochure also includes a USB key containing the electronic version of the publication.
Trade policy reforms have a role to play in reducing large current account imbalances, this paper finds. A multilateral and co-ordinated approach to reducing imbalances, involving macroeconomic, exchange rate and structural reforms, is essential for achieving maximum benefits for all countries.<
The OECD Global Forum on Agriculture 2011 had as its focus improving agricultural market information and analysis for better policy decisions and enhanced food security.
This report reviews economic concepts of innovation, research and development (R&D), productivity and competitiveness, and their linkages. It then discusses evidence on developments in productivity and competitiveness in the agricultural and food processing sectors and on the relationship between agricultural productivity and farm size, factor intensity, farm specialisation, human capital, consumer demand, the natural environment, investments in general infrastructures and R&D, regulations, and agricultural policies. It describes developments in public and private investments in agricultural R&D and outlines their positive impact on productivity growth. Finally, it suggests an “innovation systems” approach would help understand better how innovation translates into productivity growth.
As part of the OECD Green Growth Strategy, this new series aims to provide in-depth reviews of the green growth issues faced by different sectors. The agriculture and fisheries sectors have an important role to play in contributing to greener growth, in particular through facilitating the uptake of green technologies and management practices and reducing waste in the food chain. This will involve a range of policies, including: the reform of environmentally harmful subsidies that distort efficient resource use; freer international trade; shifting towards targeted policies that will support poor and vulnerable farmers; rewarding the provision of ecosystem services; and encouraging R&D, technologies and management practices that improve the productivity of resource use. Framing appropriate “greening” policies is also a major governance issue which requires examining the incentives and disincentives generated by policies, as well as the regulatory and institutional framework more broadly.