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Physical and human capital (especially second- and third-level education), financial development and some aspects of labour market institutions are important policy and institutional areas that determine comparative advantage today, according to this paper.
European support to farm incomes has decreased substantially over the past 20 years, according to this report. Farmers earned 22% of total annual receipts from government support over the 2008-10 period, down from 39% annually over the 1986-88 period.
Governments and taxpayers spent about half a trillion dollars last year supporting the production and consumption of fossil fuels. Removing inefficient subsidies would raise national revenues and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, according to OECD and IEA analyses.
Public authorities and private operators should agree on a definition of sustainability for fisheries and aquaculture, which would enhance the credibility of a label or certification, provide transparency, and enable consumers to make informed choices when they buy fish products.
OECD export credits work is one of the basic building blocks of the ever growing structure of global trade agreements that aim to maintain open and efficient markets.
Government support to agriculture in OECD countries fell to 18% of total farm receipts in 2010, a record low linked to high commodity prices, but has been rising in large emerging economies, according to a new OECD report.
After an increase in 2009, producer support in the OECD area declined in 2010, confirming the downward trend in support to farmers. The trend in emerging economies shows some increase in the level of support, although it stays well below the OECD average.
Turkey could boost its competitiveness in agriculture by renewing efforts to decouple farm support from production while continuing with institutional reforms, according to this report. These policy steps will also prepare Turkey for possible future European Union membership.
Advance rulings, formalities and procedures, information availability and inter-agency cooperation are the policy areas with the greatest impact on trade volumes and trade costs, according to OECD trade facilitation indicators studied in this report.
A co-ordinated multilateral removal of fossil-fuel consumption subsidies over the 2013-2020 period would increase global trade volumes by 0.1% by 2020, according to this report.