This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. The Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging. Productivity growth lags behind other Southeast Asian countries, and a number of policy distortions hinder progress. With agricultural land resources also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, the report offers a series of recommendations to improve the sector’s performance and its ability to adapt to climate change.
Costa Rica’s strong agricultural sector is underpinned by the country’s political stability, robust economic growth and high levels of human development. The sector has achieved significant export success, yet raising productivity and staying competitive in world markets will require efforts to address bottlenecks in infrastructure, innovation and access to financial services. Maximising Costa Rica’s comparative advantage in higher-value niche products will depend upon more efficient services to agriculture, including better implementation of programmes, improved co-ordination among institutions, and reduced bureaucracy. While overall protection for agriculture is relatively low compared to OECD countries, it is nonetheless highly distorting to production and trade. Managing the transition to scheduled liberalisation presents an opportunity to reform costly policies, and to implement an alternative policy package with new investments in innovation, productivity and diversification, supported by transition assistance where needed. Costa Rican agriculture’s vulnerability to extreme weather events is expected to worsen with climate change, and even while the country is among global leaders in environmental protection, sustainable development and climate change mitigation, further adaptation efforts will be necessary.
OECD is contributing to AMIS, an agricultural market information system aimed at addressing food price volatility through more timely, accurate and transparent information on global food markets.
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This excel file contains all the historical interest rates used in the Export Credits. These include CIRR since 1983, ASU CIRR since 2007, RESU CIRR since 2009 and NSU CIRR since 2009 - version dated 14 February 2017 (revision of the Hungarian rate due to a typo).
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The Commercial Interest Reference Rates valid from 15 February to 14 March 2017 have been published. REVISED 14 FEB. 2017 (typo in the Hungarian rate)
English, Excel, 44kb
ASU historical Margin Benchmark for civil aircraft.
English, PDF, 365kb
Minimum interest rates to apply to official financing support for export credits covered by the nuclear power plants Understanding (Annex II of the Arrangement).
English, Excel, 362kb
Minimum interest rates to apply to official financing support for export credits covered by the renewable energy, climate change mitigation and adaptation and water projects Sector Understanding (Annex IV of the Arrangement)
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The Commercial Interest Reference Rates for Civil Aircraft valid from 15 February to 14 March 2017.
The official list of seed varieties which have been accepted by National Designated Authorities of participating countries as eligible for certification in accordance with the rules of the OECD Seed Schemes.