In a globalised world, where goods cross borders many times as intermediate and as final products, trade facilitation is essential to lowering overall trade costs and increasing economic welfare, in particular for developing and emerging economies. Facilitation efforts undertaken by various countries around the world also show that the benefits of such measures clearly compensate the costs and challenges posed by their implementation.
Agriculture is expected to face increasing water risks that will impact production, markets, trade and food security - risks that can be mitigated with targeted policy actions on water hotspots. This report develops the hotspot approach, provides an application at the global scale, and presents a mitigation policy action plan. The People’s Republic of China, India and the United States are identified as countries facing the greatest water risks for agriculture production globally.
A global simulation shows that, in the absence of action, water risks in Northeast China, Northwest India and the Southwest United States in particular could have significant production, price and trade consequences. Agriculture water risks could also result in broader socio-economic and food security concerns. Farmers, agro food companies, and governments can all play a role in responding to water risks at hotspot locations. A three-tier policy action plan is proposed to confront water risk hotspots, encompassing targeted responses, adapted national policies, strengthened market integration and international collaboration.
The Co-operative Research Programme (CRP)'s Call for Applications for conference sponsorship and research fellowships for funding in 2018 is CLOSED. The CRP supports work on sustainable use of natural resources in agriculture, forests, fisheries and food production.
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ASU historical Margin Benchmark for civil aircraft.
Management of farm animal diseases is increasingly important in view of the threats they pose to farm incomes and sometimes even to the viability of farm enterprises, wildlife and humans. This report analyses the incentives for individual farmers to manage such risks and the governments' role to align farmer incentives with public objectives.
Identifying and assessing animal disease risks, as well as understanding their financial implications, are central to decisions made by farmers. The report examines the economic drivers of farmer decisions and government economic instruments, such as compensation related to livestock epidemics. It further discusses a spectrum of psychological and social drivers of farmer behaviour and emphasises the importance of government's more extensive role in the areas of information, communication and education related to disease management. Finally, farmer collective action in various areas of disease management is considered, such as capacity building, risk insurance, surveillance, and responses to disease outbreaks. The case studies of livestock disease management in Australia, Chile and Korea complement this analysis.
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This excel file contains all the historical interest rates used in the Export Credits. These include CIRR since 1983, ASU CIRR since 2007, RESU CIRR since 2009 and NSU CIRR since 2009 - version dated 7 September 2017.
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Minimum interest rates to apply to official financing support for export credits covered by the nuclear power plants Understanding (Annex II of the Arrangement).
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Minimum interest rates to apply to official financing support for export credits covered by the renewable energy, climate change mitigation and adaptation and water projects Sector Understanding (Annex IV of the Arrangement)
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The Commercial Interest Reference Rates valid from 15 September to 14 October 2017 have been published.
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The Commercial Interest Reference Rates for Civil Aircraft valid from 15 September to 14 October 2017.