Trade and Agriculture Directorate

Environmental Requirements and Market Access

 

Table of contents | How to obtain this publication

ISBN Number: 9264013741
Publication Date: 28/11/2005
Pages: 288

Environmental Requirements and Market Access

Do environmental regulations block exports from developing countries? Whose responsibility is it to ensure that exports do not end up rotting in the ports of destination? Are voluntary environmental standards, like for organic foods, in fact obligatory for any developing-country exporter who wants to stay in the market? Or do such environmental requirements actually increase export opportunities while reducing environmental impacts and making products safer?

Investigating over twenty cases where exports from developing countries faced new environmental requirements, this OECD report addresses these and other questions. These case studies, covering a diverse number of products and exporting countries, trace a number of environmental regulations, standards and labelling schemes, from conception through implementation. In so doing, they highlight the difference that sensitivity to potential trade effects can make when designing environmental regulations and standards. They also show that timely technical assistance has played a crucial role in helping exporters from developing countries adjust to new environmental requirements without suffering adverse trade effects.


Table of contents

Acromyms

Executive Summary
Part I. Addressing Market Access Concerns of Developing Countries Arising from Environmental and Health Requirements: Lessons from National Experiences

  • Lessons from National Experiences

Part II. Case Studies on Environmental Requirements and Market Access

  • Chapter 1. Limits on Formaldehyde in Textiles
  • Chapter 2. Limits on Aromatic Amines in Textiles Coloured with Azo Dyes
  • Chapter 3. Limits on Chemical Residues in Leather Goods
  • Chapter 4. Limits on Cadmium in Plastics and PVC
  • Chapter 5. US Imports Procedures for Gasoline
  • Chapter 6. Limits on Pesticide Residues in Snow Peas
  • Chapter 7. Limits on Pesticide Residues in Tea
  • Chapter 8. Limiting Pesticide Residues in Pineapples
  • Chapter 9. Phytosanitary Measures Affecting the Import of Fresh Durian Fruit
  • Chapter 10. Sustainability Lables for Wood and Wood Products
  • Chapter 11. Adapting Turtle-Excluder Devices to Local Conditions
  • Chapter 12. Phasing Out Methyl Bromide
  • Chapter 13. Standards for Organic Food and Beverages
  • Chapter 14. The European Union's Import Procedures for Organic Food and Beverages
  • Chapter 15. Japan's Regulations Affecting the Labelling of Organic Plant Products
  • Chapter 16. Regulating "Organic" Food Labels in the United States
  • Chapter 17. Eco-Labels for Cut Flowers
  • Chapter 18. Mangrove Protection Initiatives and Farmed Shrimp
  • Chapter 19. Private Certification of a Fishery as Sustainable
  • Chapter 20 The International Fruit Container Organisation (IFCO) Returnable Package Initiative
  • Chapter 21. Developing an International Standard for "Green" Tourism

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