English, , 511kb
Using key principles and provisions of the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) as a yardstick for analysis, this paper examines whether and how eight major regional integration agreements in Sub-Saharan Africa address TBT.
Metals and minerals such as copper, titanium and rare earths are used to produce high-tech and energy-efficient goods such as hybrid vehicles, computers and aircraft. This paper looks at the impacts of export restrictions often put on these raw materials.
English, , 739kb
Maritime transport costs have a significant impact on the trade in agricultural goods. Maritime transport costs represent a high proportion of the imported value of agricultural products -- 10% on average, which is a similar level of magnitude as agricultural tariffs.
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Firms find advantages in sourcing inputs from abroad and in fragmenting their production process. This report describes and illustrates new firm strategies of vertical specialisation and explores the trade policy implications of new patterns of trade and investment.
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This paper provides an in-depth examination of the trade effects of three regional trade agreements (RTAs) in the agricultural sector: the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR).
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Trade in services contributes to a broader services supplier base that supports competitiveness in high-technology and high-value added manufacturing.
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Foreign direct investment (FDI) represents an increasingly important dimension of international economic integration with global FDI flows growing faster than output over the past two decades.