Offshoring by OECD-based multinationals is mainly carried out in other OECD economies and often in high-cost countries, for high-value, knowledge-intensive activities. Developing economies must try to attract these types of activities and not be confined to low-value activities.
Emerging economies are increasingly important in the pharmaceutical sector as markets and as research and development (R&D) participants. Further involvement by these economies in international trade facilitating measures will help trade, innovation and globalisation of R&D.
Technology, lower transport costs and trade in intermediate inputs and tasks have given countries access to additional labour and capital than what is just available within their borders. Policy makers should focus on these changing dynamics in resource bases.
Access to international trade in intermediate inputs boosts innovation and productivity for domestic firms, according to this study. However, these dynamic gains from trade depend on complementary policies such as access to finance, access to skilled labour and macroeconomic stability.
A 50% reduction of trade barriers by G20 economies, complemented by active labour and adjustment policies, could generate more jobs, higher real wages and increased exports, according to new OECD analysis. (OECD Trade Policy Working Paper no. 107)
Consult our series of studies, free to access and download, on issues including trade liberalisation, trade restrictions, trade in services and the Aid for Trade initiative with developing countries.
The chemicals sector has a long history of innovation and is a large trading item. This paper analyses and compares different trade and innovation linkages in basic industrial chemicals, specialty and fine chemicals and consumer chemicals.
Export restrictions on raw materials, including commodities like metals and minerals, are not always effective in meeting policy objectives and should be subject to greater transparency, says this OECD study of recent trends in these measures.
This study analyses the extent to which e-commerce provisions in existing regional trade agreements (RTAs) can be multilateralised, and proposes two broad approaches for doing so.
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How do international standards affect international trade? This paper surveys empirical studies investigating this relationship, focusing on econometric studies.