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Governments intervene in non-renewable natural resources sectors more than in many others, including through the use of export taxes and quotas. This paper aims to increase understanding of the economic effects of export restrictions, in particular as they apply to the mining sector.
Understanding trade costs is essential for formulating policy interventions designed to reduce such costs. This report synthesises all OECD work on cost factors across the entire trade chain.
Transparent trade legislation, policies and practices benefit governments and business alike by reducing uncertainty and transaction costs, simplifying procedures and encouraging investment. This paper studies the information published online by 33 countries on their export restriction policies in the minerals sector, and presents a checklist of best practices for addressing gaps in the availability and accessibility of information.
The signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was a source of debate in United States politics, particularly regarding possible labour market effects. This paper gives an overview and assessment of the debate and US employment policy responses.
Innovation is critical to creating new sources of growth, and trade can strengthen innovation in the business sector. Technology diffusion, competition and exports are channels through which trade affects innovation. These channels along with the related policy issues are discussed in this report.
This paper reviews the main schools of thought on the political economy of trade and employment - in particular, the potential costs of liberalisation and the manner that concerns about these costs may inhibit countries' willingness to open markets.
International economic integration, while generating important benefits, requires a flexible and efficient social security system that assists workers displaced by external competition or other structural changes, according to this study of trade, employment and wages in Italy.
Exports play an important role in relative employment of skilled versus unskilled workers, according to this study of the manufacturing sector in Korea.
Trade has little impact on individual-level wages, according to this analysis of the link between trade and labour market outcomes (such as wages and employment) in Germany.
This paper examines the effects of exports on employment (i.e. the number of workers), working-hours, and total worker-hours (i.e. employment times working-hours) in Japan.