The chemicals sector has a long history of innovation and is a large trading item. This paper analyses and compares different trade and innovation linkages in basic industrial chemicals, specialty and fine chemicals and consumer chemicals.
Open markets will be necessary for a sustained economic recovery. This report recommends that governments continue to resist protectionist pressures and work towards a level playing field for trade.
Export restrictions on raw materials, including commodities like metals and minerals, are not always effective in meeting policy objectives and should be subject to greater transparency, says this OECD study of recent trends in these measures.
This study analyses the extent to which e-commerce provisions in existing regional trade agreements (RTAs) can be multilateralised, and proposes two broad approaches for doing so.
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How do international standards affect international trade? This paper surveys empirical studies investigating this relationship, focusing on econometric studies.
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Using key principles and provisions of the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) as a yardstick for analysis, this paper examines whether and how eight major regional integration agreements in Sub-Saharan Africa address TBT.
Metals and minerals such as copper, titanium and rare earths are used to produce high-tech and energy-efficient goods such as hybrid vehicles, computers and aircraft. This paper looks at the impacts of export restrictions often put on these raw materials.
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Maritime transport costs have a significant impact on the trade in agricultural goods. Maritime transport costs represent a high proportion of the imported value of agricultural products -- 10% on average, which is a similar level of magnitude as agricultural tariffs.
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Firms find advantages in sourcing inputs from abroad and in fragmenting their production process. This report describes and illustrates new firm strategies of vertical specialisation and explores the trade policy implications of new patterns of trade and investment.
With the global economic crisis, governments are now focused on restoring national economic and employment growth and financial stability which also poses risks for freedom of investment.