Agricultural policies and support

Multifunctionality in Agriculture: What Role for Private Initiatives?


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This report sheds light on potential alternative non-government solutions to resolving problems created by agriculture practices. The approaches analysed include market mechanisms, the promotion of private transactions, and voluntary approaches.

A typology has been developed and fourteen specific cases are examined, illustrating a wide diversity of situations in a range of OECD countries. The examples range from the use of market price premiums to environmental trusts, easements, and tradable credits or quotas, and cover both positive and negative externalities. Some of the examples identified relate to new and innovative approaches, while others have a relatively long history of operation. This report synthesises the findings of the case studies and focusses on the role of government and its implications. It also assesses the relative efficiency, equity and stability of the approaches described in the case studies compared with direct government intervention.

Table of Contents

Part I. Synthesis Report

Assessment of Non-Governmental Approaches: Non-Commodity Outputs (NCOs)
Assessment of Non-Governmental Approaches: Negative Effects (NEs)

Part II. Case Studies

1. Agritourism in Italy (Type P1)
2. Market Price Premiums for Milk in the United Kingdom (Type P2)
3. Conservation Trust: The National Trust in the United Kingdom (Type P3)
4. Easement Arrangements in the United States (Type P3)
5. Agritourism and Landscape Conservation Program in Austria (Type P3)
6. Tourist Train in Norway (Type P3)
7. Consumer Movement: Chisan-Chishou in Japan (Type P4)
8. Voluntary Flood Mitigation (Type P5)
9. Voluntary Conservation of Biodiversity and Landscapes on Banks Peninsula, New Zealand (Type P5)
10. Direct Transaction: A Case of Mineral Water in France (Type N1)
11. Voluntary Approaches (Type N2)
12. Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand (Type N2)
13. Tradeable Manure/Animal Quotas in the Netherlands (Type N3)
14. Wetland Mitigation Banking (Type N1)

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