The recorded use of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on food and agricultural products -- such as plant and animal health requirements and technical regulations -- has risen rapidly in recent years. This development has coincided with tighter restrictions on the use of tariffs, prompting concerns that NTMs present an increasing barrier to international trade. Exporters in developing, emerging and transition economies typically have greater difficulties in complying with NTMs than their counterparts in OECD countries. At the same time, countries outside the OECD area face constraints that limit the effectiveness of their participation in the multilateral system and their say in which NTMs should be considered legitimate. This report suggests that technical assistance can help countries to address the economic and legal challenges that they face, but that such assistance needs to be combined with easier access to OECD markets. Support to agricultural producers in the EU pre-accession economies and Russia was less volatile than in the early 1990s, indicating improved integration into world markets and greater economic stability. Developments in these and other key agricultural economies -- Brazil, China, India and South Africa -- point to the common challenge faced in improving incomes and employment in rural areas. These and other key issues are analysed in this ninth edition of Agricultural Policies in Emerging and Transition Economies. AVAILABLE ON CD-ROM Major agricultural indicators for the economies covered in this book are available on CD-ROM. The OECD Agricultural Database provides a unique collection of policy-relevant agricultural statistics, as well as detailed support estimates for both OECD and transition economies. It is in Beyond 20/20TM user-friendly software that enables you to export data, build graphs and carry out your own analysis. FURTHER READING Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation 2001 OECD Agricultural Outlook 2001-2006
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