RTR 2001-2003 Projects - Motorcycle Accident Investigation : Development of a Common methodology
RTR 2001-2003 Projects
The objective of the project was to develop a common methodology for the collection of data on motorcycle accidents. The expected outcome is the development of a consistent set of data which can be used to identify and develop appropriate injury and accident reduction measures.
The methodology is available on an electronic format and can be obtained upon request to the OECD/RTR Secretariat (email@example.com).
The methodology was developed by the Technical Expert Group(TEG) and was based on six key principles:
Recognising that motorcyclist safety is a high priority, and that national accident statistics, as presently done, are insufficient to give a global view of the countermeasures to be developed, a multidisciplinary and in-depth common methodology has been developed.
Both active safety (driver behaviour, vehicle kinematics) and passive safety (injury mechanisms and protection) have been included in the methodology, as both can influence motorcyclist safety and there is an interaction between both aspects.
Considering that accident risks and consequences are related to user behaviour, infrastructure and vehicle characteristics, data concerning these three aspects has been included (infrastructure, vehicles and human factors).
The data collected in a specific area should be representative of the whole accident situation in this area. Specific requirements taking into account these needs are included in the methodology.
The common methodology is composed of "basic" and "optional" modules, as some aspects may not be needed in the core of the methodology, but may be needed to investigate some specific points in more detail. Optional modules include for instance, a helmet module or a moped module, and aim to collect data on specific aspects that can be of interest to some research teams only. Additional modules may be developed in the future pending on the first results with the analysis of the data collected with the basic module.
The methodology was developed to be used worldwide. Therefore, specific requirements for the qualifications and training of team members as well as quality control are included.
The common methodology is now available in an electronic version and contains 13 parts.
Part 1 includes the definitions of words and expressions used in the methodology which may be misinterpreted. This part contributes to guarantee that the methodology is used in the same manner by the different teams.
Part 2 contains the requirements for sampling the accidents to be selected for investigation. These requirements ensure that the accident samples are representative of the accident situation in the area of investigation.
Part 3 is the accident data collection procedure. It includes 1) data collected on site at the time of the accident, or shortly after, 2) data collected after the accident, mainly concerning other vehicles or accident victims, and 3) concurrent exposure data. The latter is aimed at describing the characteristics of the traffic at the location and time the accident occurred. Alternative procedures are proposed for this purpose.
Part 4 deals with the assembly of data collected in Part 3, as well as additional data including calculations and interpretations of data collected in Part 3. This especially concerns the accident reconstruction necessary to understand the chronology and importance of events, and an analysis of the factors which contributed to the occurrence of the accident and resulting injuries.
Parts 5 to 8 contain the requirements needed to set up and run a team using the common methodology. They include requirements concerning the qualifications and the training of team members, quality control procedures, liaison and cooperative agreements with local authorities and technical services, and equipment and facility requirements(cameras, measurement tools, etc.).
Parts 9 to 13 concern the requirements and proposals for future analysis. This includes a common coding manual, basic statistical analysis, requirements for the database, and known plans to use the common methodology. These parts take into account the needs for the aggregation of data and their common analysis indicated as one of the main objectives of the methodology at the beginning of the program.
The common methodology is already used in several countries.
Thailand started to use this common methodology in Bangkok early in 1999. Since this was the first attempt to use the new methodology, the project was supervised by the HPRL (Head Protection Laboratory, United States). The feedback from the first use of the common methodology was very useful to improve it.
In mid-1999, ACEM (the European Association of Motorcycles Manufacturers), through the MAIDS EC-funded project, organised the use of the methodology by five teams in five different European countries (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain).
Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States are considering the use of this methodology, and other countries have shown interest as well.