14-15 November 2011
Alexandria, Virginia, United States
The OECD project on Knowledge Networks and Markets (KNM) examines different mechanisms used by individuals and organisations to access and disseminate knowledge as part of their innovation activities. This workshop focused on strategies for identifying the prevalence of diverse forms of knowledge transfer and on measuring knowledge flows as well as the mechanisms that enable them. The development of robust metrics will enable a critical assessment of KNM’s impact on science and innovation and will assist in the formulation of effective policy measures to reduce transaction costs, enhance collaboration in research activities and spur further innovation and economic growth.
Workshop objectives were to:
- Evaluate approaches for conceptualising KNMs from a measurement and policy analysis perspective.
- Consider the key user needs and priority steps for improving the measurement of knowledge flows.
- Review the experiences from existing data sources and analytical tools.
- Identify the potential and limitations of novel data sources and analytical tools to be used in future empirical studies of KNMs.
Download the workshop proceedings (pdf)
Workshop presentations are available below.
Monday 14 November 2011
8:15-9:15. Registration and breakfast
9:15-10:30. Session 1: The OECD-KNOWINNO project on Knowledge Networks and Markets
- Stuart Graham, Chief Economist, USPTO. Welcome and opening
- Alessandra Colecchia, Head of Economic Analysis and Statistics, DSTI, OECD
- Representative from DG Research and Innovation, TBC European Commission
- Introductory tour de table
9:30-10:30. Understanding and Classifying Knowledge Networks and Markets
Chair: Alessandra Colecchia, Head of Economic Analysis and Statistics, DSTI, OECD
This presentation will review the different types of knowledge flows and knowledge exchange mechanisms used by firms and organisations, proposing a new taxonomy for KNMs which can provide a common language and be subject to empirical validation. The taxonomy will be used to focus efforts to improve the statistical evidence and focus the policy analysis within the project.
Points for discussion:
- Does the proposed taxonomy meet its stated aims?
- Is it useful for a range of users?
- Which data and analytical tools can be used to test it?
10:30-11:00 Coffee break
11:00-12:30. Session 2: Setting out the policy questions and evidence needs on Knowledge Networks and Markets
Chair: Kaye Husbands Fealing, Professor, Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota and US Committee on National Statistics, Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy
This session will discuss different institutional features and policies that affect the circulation of knowledge in the economy and consider possible ways of assessing their impact.
Markets for technology: The role of IP as an emerging currency in the knowledge economy
Clearly assigned property rights are considered essential for the existence of efficiently functioning markets. At the same time, patents, which are rights to exclude, can have deleterious effects on subsequent knowledge creation and exchange. This session will focus on ways to estimate the extent to which patents impact the exchange of knowledge and innovation.
Promoting markets, networks and collaborative mechanisms for scientific research
Recent policy initiatives have rendered scientific data accessible on an unprecedented scale. The anticipated social and economic benefits of such endeavors are manifold, but so far there are limited metrics for measuring their impact on scientific output. This session will present examples of programmes and policies which promote the use of public information in scientific research and discuss ways to assess the impact of such initiatives.
13:30-14:30. Session 2 resumes
Addressing barriers to knowledge flows
The operation of innovation systems depends on the fluidity of knowledge flows among enterprises, universities and research institutions. The design of effective science and innovation policies can be significantly improved through a better understanding of how market, institutional and policy features promote or hinder knowledge circulation. This session will consider different types of impediments to knowledge flows, their impact on knowledge creation and diffusion and possible measures that might be used to remove them.
- Wesley Cohen, Frederick C. Joerg Professor of Business Administration. Professor of Strategy, Economics, and Law, The Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, “Patents as Barrier, Vehicle and Measure of Knowledge Flows”
- Lee Fleming, Albert J. Weatherhead III Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School, “Regional Disadvantage? Non-compete Agreements and Brain Drain”
14:30-15:45. Session 3: New approaches to measuring supply, transfer and use of IP
Chair: Stuart Graham, Chief Economist, USPTO
IP marketplaces have become increasingly common in recent years. The larger volume of trade in patents – their licensing and sale, can be indicative of technology transfers but also raises concerns about the strategic use of patents as means for extracting rents through litigation. This session will discuss what can be inferred about the market for technology from the analyses of data on mergers and acquisitions, patent sales, licensing and litigation.
15:45-16:00 Coffee break
16:00-17:15. Session 4: Knowledge discovery and data mining tools for measuring knowledge exchange
Chair: Fernando Galindo-Rueda, Senior Economist, Economic Analysis, DSTI, OECD
The Internet and other ICTs have had an important role in promoting the use of data-mining tools for assembling, interlinking and analysing information from diverse sources. In this session we will explore how advanced data analytics tools can be used for identifying and measuring knowledge flows between different parties and to what extent they can complement more traditional data sources such as patents, publications and surveys.
17:15-18:00. Developing STI indicators for the future: The role of measures of knowledge flows
Chair: John Gawalt, Deputy Director, NCSES, National Science Foundation
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Tuesday 15 November 2011
9:00-11:00 Session 5: Survey-based approaches to measuring knowledge flows and use of knowledge exchange mechanisms
Chair: Lynda Carlson, Director, NCSES, National Science Foundation
Existing surveys of businesses, researchers and inventors provide valuable information that is relevant for identifying the use of different knowledge exchange mechanisms and collaborative networks by various economic actors. This session will discuss how the data collected through surveys can be used in measuring knowledge flows and how surveys could evolve to capture more aspects of these phenomena.
- John Jankowski. Program Director, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation, “Asking Questions on Knowledge Exchange and Exploitation in the US Business R&D and Innovation Survey”
- Pluvia Zúñiga, United Nations University and MERIT, “Licensing Strategies and Obstacles: Lessons from the OECD-EPO-JPO Survey”
- Sadao Nagaoka, Professor, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University, “Measuring Knowledge Flow and Collaboration for Scientific Discovery: Evidence from a Large-scale Scientists’ Survey in Japan and the US”
- John Walsh, Professor of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology
“Understanding Collaborative and Transaction Processes using Evidence from US-Japan Survey of Inventors and US Survey of Innovation”
11:00-11:15 Coffee break
11:15-12:30 Session 6: Measuring scientific networks, mobility and collaboration mechanisms
Chair: Mariagrazia Squicciarini. Senior Economist, Economic Analysis, DSTI, OECD
The linking of information extracted from different administrative data sources can provide the basis for tracing the flow of knowledge across different parts of the innovation system, supporting the analysis of research networks and talent mobility. This session will consider examples of ways in which data-linking is used to systematically map these knowledge flows and how such efforts could be better supported and coordinated in the future.
- Francesco Lissoni, Associate Professor, Università di Brescia and KITES-Università Bocconi, “Small Worlds in Networks of Inventors and the Role of Science: An Analysis of France”
- Julie Callaert, Senior Researcher, ECOOM and Research Division INCENTIM, K.U. Leuven, “The Participation of Universities in Technology Development: Do Creation and Use Coincide? An Empirical Investigation on the Level of National Innovation Systems”
- Julia Lane, Program Director, Science of Science & Innovation Policy, National Science Foundation, “Building the Infrastructures for Monitoring Talent Mobility and Knowledge Flows”
12:30-12:45. Workshop conclusions and next steps for the OECD KNOWINNO project
12:45. OECD-KNOWINNO workshop adjourns
13:00-13:45. Workshop participants are invited to stay for the special technical session on inventor data disambiguation and sharing, sponsored by the European Science Foundation (APE-INV project)
- Francesco Lissoni, Associate Professor Università di Brescia and KITES-Università Bocconi, “New Trends in Inventor Data Production and Use”
- Vetle Torvik, Assistant Professor, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, “Probabilistic Disambiguation of Author-Inventor Names across PubMed and USPTO data”
14:00 onwards: Workshop participants are also invited to stay and register for:
PATSTAT User Day at the Patent Statistics for Decision Makers 2011 Conference
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Project funded under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission
Workshop kindly hosted by the US Patent and Trademark Office