In February 2006, OECD member countries adopted the Guidelines for the Licensing of Genetic Inventions. The Guidelines offer Principles and Best Practices for the licensing of intellectual property rights that relate to genetic inventions used for the purpose of human health care.
Adopted by the OECD Council in October 2008, these guidelines provide principles and best practices on the numerous issues that arise with respect to human genetic research databases including, among others, funding mechanisms, governance structure, privacy and confidentiality policies.
Although the discussion of using such mechanisms in the life sciences is fairly recent, certain organisations have recommended that governments, the public sector and the private sector consider the development and use of collaborative mechanisms, within the life sciences and the field of biotechnology.
Knowledge markets encompass a number of different mechanisms where buyers and sellers can trade a variety of knowledge intensive goods and services. Knowledge markets can include things like IP exchanges and patent pools; networking, matching or brokering services; clearing houses; and auctions. Increasingly, there is interest in applying the concept of knowledge market to the life sciences.