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This report explores principles that could form the basis for good practices in the establishment of international mobile roaming (IMR) agreements between two or more countries. Given the cross-country nature of IMR services and, especially, the fact that wholesale prices are determined by foreign operators outside the jurisdiction of domestic regulators, international co-operation is vital to address the challenges in roaming markets.
New trade data measured in value-added terms shows that services – such as logistics, design, and transportation - are far more important to global commerce than they appear in traditional calculations of exports and imports.
Technological advances, less costly shipping and trade liberalisation have transformed the way in which companies make products and distribute them worldwide. Governments that become more open to trade and investment, and encourage innovation will help firms better integrate the global value chains that are driving growth in increasingly interconnected economies, according to new OECD research.
Global Value Chains (GVCs) have exploded in the past decade and refer to the international dispersion of design, production, assembly, marketing and distribution of services, activities, and products. Different stages in the production process are increasingly located across different economies, and intermediate inputs like parts and components are produced in one country and then exported to other countries for further production
Recent studies have shown that knowledge-based capital (KBC) is an important source of economic growth in many of the world’s advanced economies (much more so than R&D alone) and is positively correlated with real GDP per capita in a cross-section of these economies. This literature is still in its infancy and there is, as yet, no systematic discussion of KBC policy. This working paper makes an attempt to fill this gap.
This review provides a quantitative and qualitative assessment of countries’ capacity in S&T and innovation. A regional synthesis highlights current performance and knowledge circulation, and country profiles describe the dynamics of national innovation systems and their relation to international knowledge flows, taking into account the wider framework conditions for innovation.
Countries/regions have begun to develop and refine regulatory approaches for foods and medical products and invest in regulatory science and other research efforts to support the responsible development of nanotechnology in these areas. This paper inventories and analyses regulatory approaches, legislative regimes and government-sponsored research programmes and infrastructure in foods and medical products that involve nanotechnology.
This book evaluates the performance of the knowledge-based sector in Mexico and provides policy recommendations for improving the financing, creation and expansion of innovative knowledge-based start-ups.
The Committee on Consumer Policy is conducting a series of multi-stakeholder workshops to see how policies in key markets could be strengthened, using the framework and approaches developed in the OECD Consumer Policy Toolkit. Communication services were the topic of the first workshop, held in October 2011. This paper provides a summary of the proceedings, which focused on marketing practices, contract terms, and billing issues.
The April 2013 meeting of the OECD Global Forum saw the official launch of Scientific Collections International (SciColl), a new international network devoted to promoting interdisciplinary research that relies on scientific collections.