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This paper brings together information collected through Working Party on Nanotechnology discussions and projects. It relies in particular on preliminary results from a project on the responsible development of nanotechnology and outcomes of a symposium held in 2012.
The indicators proposed, which can be constructed on all patents, have the advantage of relying on a homogeneous set of information and of being comparable across countries and over time. To facilitate their compilation on data from other intellectual property (IP) offices, the SQL-based program codes used to calculate the indicators are also supplied.
This report explores principles that could form the basis for good practices in the establishment of international mobile roaming (IMR) agreements between two or more countries. Given the cross-country nature of IMR services and, especially, the fact that wholesale prices are determined by foreign operators outside the jurisdiction of domestic regulators, international co-operation is vital to address the challenges in roaming markets.
The emergence of GVCs challenges our conventional wisdom on how we look at economic globalisation and in particular, the policies that we develop around it. The OECD is preparing a broad range of work to help policy makers understand the effects of GVCs on a number of policy domains.
New trade data measured in value-added terms shows that services – such as logistics, design, and transportation - are far more important to global commerce than they appear in traditional calculations of exports and imports.
Technological advances, less costly shipping and trade liberalisation have transformed the way in which companies make products and distribute them worldwide. Governments that become more open to trade and investment, and encourage innovation will help firms better integrate the global value chains that are driving growth in increasingly interconnected economies, according to new OECD research.
Recent studies have shown that knowledge-based capital (KBC) is an important source of economic growth in many of the world’s advanced economies (much more so than R&D alone) and is positively correlated with real GDP per capita in a cross-section of these economies. This literature is still in its infancy and there is, as yet, no systematic discussion of KBC policy. This working paper makes an attempt to fill this gap.
This review provides a quantitative and qualitative assessment of countries’ capacity in S&T and innovation. A regional synthesis highlights current performance and knowledge circulation, and country profiles describe the dynamics of national innovation systems and their relation to international knowledge flows, taking into account the wider framework conditions for innovation.
Countries/regions have begun to develop and refine regulatory approaches for foods and medical products and invest in regulatory science and other research efforts to support the responsible development of nanotechnology in these areas. This paper inventories and analyses regulatory approaches, legislative regimes and government-sponsored research programmes and infrastructure in foods and medical products that involve nanotechnology.
This book evaluates the performance of the knowledge-based sector in Mexico and provides policy recommendations for improving the financing, creation and expansion of innovative knowledge-based start-ups.