Innovation in science, technology and industry

Frascati Manual

Guidelines for collecting and reporting data on Research and Experimental Development 


The internationally recognised methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics, the OECD's Frascati Manual is an essential tool for statisticians and science and innovation policy makers worldwide. It includes definitions of basic concepts, data collection guidelines, and classifications for compiling R&D statistics.

This updated edition contains improved guidelines reflecting recent changes in the way R&D takes place and is funded and the wider use of R&D statistics and definitions. It provides new chapters dedicated to the pratical aspects of collecting R&D data in different sectors, as well as new guidance on capturing different aspects of public support for R&D such as tax incentives.

For more information see the manual's flyer.

R&D and Metadata ¦ Community Space ¦ Complementary Material ¦ Revision Process & Previous Editions ¦ Related Material

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Citation Details


R&D data and metadata

The Frascati Manual provides the basis upon which the OECD collects and publishes statistics on R&D expenditures and personnel for all OECD countries and major economies.


Key R&D and other S&T indicators: Main Science and Technology Indicators

Detailed R&D data on expenditures, personnel and government budgets: R&D statistics database

Information on the data provided by countries at OECD R&D Sources and Methods Database

Analytical business enterprise database base (ANBERD) by industry

Data and indicators on public support for R&D through tax incentives


Frascati Manual User Community Space

frascati-group A community space for NESTI providers of R&D statistics for discussing manual implementation experiences and seeking advice and support from peers and the OECD.


Glossary, annexes and complementary material

Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge.

The Glossary of Key Terms provides an up-to-date list of key concepts and definitions used in the Frascati Manual and its annexes


Revision Process and Previous Editions

frascati old

The Frascati Manual is based on the experience gained from collecting R&D statistics in both OECD and non-member countries. The 2015 edition is the result of the collective work of NESTI, involving more than 120 experts from nearly 40 countries and international organisations. The revision took place over two years and was supported by an open online consultation and discussions with various other OECD committees.
The manual has been endorsed by the OECD Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (CSTP) and the OECD Committee for Statistics and Statistical Policy (CSSP).

The manual owes its name to the Italian town where, in 1962, the OECD Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators (NESTI) first agreed on a common approach to measure and report statistics on R&D. The manual has been revised on six occasions to address new challenges and take into account emerging user interests.

2002 ¦ 1994 ¦ 1981 ¦ 1976 ¦ 1970 ¦ 1963


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