Industry and globalisation

Measuring Trade in Value Added: An OECD-WTO joint initiative


Introduction to Trade in Value Added (TiVA)

The goods and services we buy are composed of inputs from various countries around the world. However, the flows of goods and services within these global production chains are not always reflected in conventional measures of international trade.

The joint OECD – WTO Trade in Value-Added (TiVA) initiative addresses this issue by considering the value added by each country in the production of goods and services that are consumed worldwide. TiVA indicators are designed to better inform policy makers by providing new insights into the commercial relations between nations.

Remarks on TiVA at the Istanbul G20 Trade Ministers meeting6 October 2015.

2015 edition of TiVA indicators

The 2015 edition of the TiVA database includes 61 economies covering OECD, EU28, G20, most East and South-east Asian economies and a selection of South American countries. The industry list has been expanded to cover 34 unique industrial sectors, including 16 manufacturing and 14 services sectors. The years covered are 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2008 to 2011.

The indicators presented in the TiVA database provide insights into:

  • Domestic and foreign value added content of gross exports by exporting industry
  • Services content of gross exports by exporting industry, by type of service and value added origin
  • Participation in GVCs via intermediate imports embodied in exports (backward linkages) and domestic value added in partners’ exports (forward linkages)
  • ‘Global orientation’ of industrial activity i.e. share of industry valued added that meets foreign final demand
  • Origins of value added in final demand, by source country and source industry, including the origin of value added in final consumption (by households and government) and in GFCF (investment by businesses)
  • Bilateral trade relationships based on flows of value added embodied in domestic final demand
  • Inter-regional and intra-regional relationships


Access to the TiVA database (OECD.STAT)

More information

Sources and methods

Trade policy implications (forthcoming)

Industry perspective (forthcoming)

WTO Made in the World Initiative

The underlying Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) tables, used to derive the TiVA indicators, are available for downloading (zipped csv) at:


The 2015 ICIO and TiVA databases are dedicated to the memory of

Norihisa Sakurai, 1957-2015

much liked and much respected colleague who was instrumental in producing the first set of OECD harmonised Input-Output tables in 1995.


Development of these TiVA indicators has greatly benefitted from other related initiatives such as work undertaken for the European Commission’s FP7 WIOD project and by researchers at  US ITC and IDE JETRO, Japan.


Country notes

40 country notes are available covering OECD members as well as major non-OECD countries.

Guide to the country notes.

OECD member countries



Austria_small Austria Belgium_small Belgium
Canada_small Canada
Chile_small Chile
Czech Republic_small


Denmark_small Denmark Estonia_small Estonia Finland_small Finland France_small France



Greece_small Greece Hungary_small Hungary Iceland_small Iceland Ireland_small Ireland



Italy_small Italy Japan_small Japan Korea_small Korea Luxembourg_small Luxembourg



Netherlands_small Netherlands New Zealand_small New Zealand Norway_small Norway



Slovak Republic_small Slovak
Slovenia_small Slovenia
Spain_small Spain Sweden_small Sweden
Switzerland_small Switzerland
Turkey_small Turkey United Kingdom_small United
United States_small United

Other major countries



China India Indonesia_small Indonesia

Russian Federation_small

South Africa_small South Africa         


GVCs and going beyond TiVA

The OECD is carrying out a broad range of work to help policy makers understand the effects of Global Value Chains (GVCs). Addressing trade policy, investment policy, policies for development and a range of other domestic policies, the analyses aim at determining how economies can best draw benefits from engagement in global value chains:

The development of an Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) system lends itself to the calculation of indicators to provide insights into other important areas affected by economic globalisation. These include Trade in jobs and skills, e.g. how many and what type of jobs are sustained by foreign final demand (see, forthcoming). The ICIO, in conjunction with emissions data, also allows the calculation of estimates of Trade in embodied carbon to highlight where CO2 is ultimately being consumed rather than produced:

In addition, the OECD is improving the accounting frameworks and content of national input-output and supply use tables so that the current ICIO, used in producing TiVA estimates, can be further developed to address a range of additional policy concerns, including: 

  • Trade and Investment: how income (profits) generated from international trade, in particular income generated via knowledge based assets, is further distributed between affiliates of multinational enterprises (MNEs):
  • Trade and SMEs: to better understand the channels used by SMEs to integrate within GVCs. Gross trade data understate the importance of SMEs in GVCs but they play an important role as upstream suppliers to larger, exporting,  firms.  A recent report by OECD and World Bank Group addresses this issue:

The OECD Expert Group on Extended Supply Use Tables was created recently to develop new accounting frameworks and best practices for their implementation and use (see Terms of Reference). The Group is leading international efforts to develop national tables that better differentiate between firms’ involvement in GVCs. For example, accounting for heterogeneity by distinguishing between exporting and non-exporting firms in a manner similar to that developed for China and Mexico in the current ICIO.

In addition, the OECD and WTO are developing partnerships with regional agencies to assist in the expansion of TiVA indicators to other countries – at present these include APEC, UNESCWA, UNECA and Eurostat. In the meantime, a simple guide will be made available, outlining the information required for a country to be integrated into the ICIO and hence the TiVA database.



For any queries about the TiVA database, please write to

Short addresses for this page: or


Related Documents