Spanish, PDF, 301kb
En 2012, 24% de los estudiantes de España tuvo un bajo rendimiento en matemáticas (media OCDE: 23%), un 18% en lectura (media OCDE: 18%), un 16% en ciencias (media OCDE: 18%), y un 10% en las tres materias (media OCDE: 12%)
English, PDF, 105kb
The tax burden in Spain increased by 0.5 percentage points from 32.7% to 33.2% in 2014. The corresponding figures for the OECD average were an increase of 0.2 percentage points from 34.2% to 34.4%.
The 2015 edition introduces more detailed analysis of participation in early childhood and tertiary levels of education. The report also examines first generation tertiary-educated adults’ educational and social mobility, labour market outcomes for recent graduates, and participation in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education.
English, PDF, 430kb
Spain’s life expectancy is the second highest in the OECD (after Japan). But further progress can still be achieved by addressing important risk factors to health such as tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity among adults and children.
English, PDF, 406kb
La expectativa de vida en España es la segunda más alta en la OCDE (después de Japón). Aún más progreso podría lograrse abordando importantes factores de riesgo para la salud como el consumo de tabaco y alcohol, al igual que la obesidad en poblaciones adultas e infantiles.
Access latest developments on regulatory policy in Spain and its score on the 2015 Indicators of Regulatory Policy and Governance, and the 2000 OECD Review of Regulatory Reform and the 2010 report on Better Regulation.
Since the last IEA review in 2009, Spain’s dependence on energy imports has decreased markedly, in part thanks to a rapid increase in renewable energy supply. Spain’s security of supply has further been improved with diversified import sources and enhanced storage capacity for both oil and gas.
In the electricity sector, Spain has built a large, diverse and reliable power generation fleet. After several years of efforts, the government has now also managed to solve the massive imbalance between the electricity system’s regulated costs and revenues. The broad and deep electricity market reform has fundamentally changed the remuneration scheme for renewable energy. Spain must now maintain its strong and long-term commitment to a financially sustainable electricity system. To improve investor confidence, it should also closely follow the principles of transparency, predictability and certainty when revising policies and regulations.
New momentum for establishing additional cross-border connections in electricity and gas will eventually enable Spain to use its large power and liquefied natural gas capacity to increase flexibility, diversity and security in the European Union internal market. The government should now focus on longer-term issues including energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. A critical question is how to encourage the transition to a low-carbon energy system.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges Spain faces and provides sectoral recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
Specific country notes have been prepared using data from the database OECD Health Statistics 2015, July 2015 version. The notes are available in PDF format.
A dashboard of key government indicators by country, to help you analyse international comparisons of public sector performance.
English, PDF, 322kb
Spain has been successful at reducing the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The mortality from CVD has decreased over the past few decades at a faster pace than the OECD average, reaching 204 per 100 000 population in 2012, 32% lower than the OECD average of 299 in 2011.