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Reports


  • 21-March-2019

    English

    Policy Responses to New Forms of Work

    This report provides a snapshot of the policy actions being taken by OECD, EU and G20 countries in response to growing diversity in forms of employment, with the aim of encouraging peer learning where countries are facing similar issues. It shows that many countries are reflecting on whether existing policies and institutions are capable of addressing effectively the current (and future) challenges of a rapidly changing world of work. In recent years, many countries have seen the emergence of, and/or growth in, particular labour contract types that diverge from the standard employment relationship (i.e. full-time dependent employment of indefinite duration). These include temporary and casual contracts, as well as own-account work and platform work. Several countries have also seen growth in false self-employment, where employers seek to evade tax and regulatory dues and obligations. These changes are driving policy makers worldwide to review how policies in different areas – labour market, skills development, social protection – can best respond. How can policymakers balance the flexibility offered by a diversity of employment contracts, on the one hand, with protection for workers and businesses, on the other?
  • 20-March-2019

    English

    OECD Reviews of Pension Systems: Portugal

    This review provides policy recommendations on how to improve the Portuguese pension system, building on the OECD’s best practices in pension design. It details the Portuguese pension system and identifies its strengths and weaknesses based on cross-country comparisons. The Portuguese pension system consists of an old-age safety net, a pay-as-you-go defined benefit scheme and voluntary private savings. The safety net includes an old-age social pension and a complement (the so-called Complemento Solidário para Idosos or CSI), both of which pursue similar objectives but have different eligibility criteria. The defined benefit scheme has two main components: the general social security scheme (regime geral da Segurança Social) and the civil-servant pension scheme (Caixa Geral de Aposentações or CGA). The latter has been closed to new entrants since 2006 with new civil servants contributing to the general scheme. Funded voluntary pensions make up a very small share of total pension entitlements. The OECD Reviews of Pension Systems: Portugal is the fourth in the series, after Ireland (2014), Mexico (2016) and Latvia (2018), with a fifth review on Peru under preparation. 
  • 19-March-2019

    English

    Society at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2019

    This is the fourth edition of Society at a Glance Asia/Pacific, the OECD’s overview of social indicators for the region. The report addresses the growing demand for quantitative evidence on social well-being and its trends across countries in Asia and the Pacific.  Chapter 1 introduces this volume and provides readers with a guide to help them interpret OECD social indicators. Chapter 2 focuses on issues around extending coverage and the future of social protection in Asia and the Pacific. Already, there are many workers in Asia and the Pacific whose job does not entitle them to social and health supports. Digitalisation and changes in the nature of work may lead to further job-loss, but also increase economic labour market and economic inequalities between high- and low-skilled workers; workers with and without access to social benefits. These rising inequalities will further challenge social policy development in its quest to get support to those who need it most. The chapter includes some country programme examples to illustrate possible policy responses. Chapter 3 to 7 each present five indicators on general context, self-sufficiency, equity, health and social cohesion.
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  • 15-March-2019

    English

    Fast Forward to Gender Equality - Mainstreaming, Implementation and Leadership

    This report maps strategies, governance tools, institutional settings and innovative approaches used by governments across the OECD to drive and support society-wide gender equality goals. It covers all state institutions, including legislatures and judiciaries, and discusses the challenges faced by OECD countries in achieving long-lasting impact. Finally, the report provides policy guidance for state institutions, supported by examples of what works across the OECD. This report establishes a baseline for monitoring progress, based on the 2015 OECD Recommendation of the Council on Gender Equality in Public Life.
  • 11-March-2019

    English

    Adult Learning in Italy - What Role for Training Funds ?

    While Italy has made major progress in the past decade to up-skill its population and workers, further efforts are needed to improve access to good quality adult learning opportunities. Training funds represent one important tool through which Italy could face the pressures brought about by the mega-trends, and equip adults and workers with the skills needed to thrive in the labour market and society. This report analyses how training funds are designed, used, and monitored, and provides actionable policy recommendations to ensure that they are put to their most effective use.
  • 11-March-2019

    English

    Measuring the Digital Transformation - A Roadmap for the Future

    Measuring the Digital Transformation: A Roadmap for the Future provides new insights into the state of the digital transformation by mapping indicators across a range of areas – from education and innovation, to trade and economic and social outcomes – against current digital policy issues, as presented in Going Digital: Shaping Policies, Improving Lives. In so doing, it identifies gaps in the current measurement framework, assesses progress made towards filling these gaps and sets-out a forward-looking measurement roadmap. The goal is to expand the evidence base, as a means to lay the ground for more robust policies for growth and well-being in the digital era.
  • 8-March-2019

    English

    SIGI 2019 Global Report - Transforming Challenges into Opportunities

    Over the past decade, the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) has consistently shown that governments need to look at discriminatory laws, social norms and practices to achieve gender equality and promote women’s empowerment. This 2019 global report provides an overview of the main outcomes of the SIGI in relation to women and the family, their physical integrity, access to productive and financial resources and their civic rights. Building on these outcomes, this report provides a set of policy recommendations to enhance governments’ efforts to deliver their gender-equality commitments through a three-pronged approach: starting with legal reforms and transformative gender policies, enforcing laws through community mobilisation and empowerment, and learning about the efficiency of policy through monitoring.
  • 26-February-2019

    English

    How's Life in the Digital Age? - Opportunities and Risks of the Digital Transformation for People's Well-being

    This report documents how the ongoing digital transformation is affecting people’s lives across the 11 key dimensions that make up the How’s Life? Well-being Framework (Income and wealth, Jobs and earnings, Housing, Health status, Education and skills, Work-life balance, Civic engagement and governance, Social connections, Environmental quality, Personal security, and Subjective well-being). A summary of existing studies highlights 39 key impacts of the digital transformation on people’s well-being. The review shows that these impacts can be positive as digital technologies expand the boundaries of information availability and enhance human productivity, but can also imply risks for people’s well-being, ranging from cyber-bullying to the emergence of disinformation or cyber-hacking. In sum, making digitalisation work for people’s well-being would require building equal digital opportunities, widespread digital literacy and strong digital security. Continued research and efforts in improving statistical frameworks will be needed to expand our knowledge on the many topics covered in this report.
  • 19-February-2019

    English, PDF, 1,856kb

    Social Protection in East Africa: Harnessing the Future

    This study identifies possible futures and explores new paths for action in six countries in East Africa – Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. It highlights seven grand challenges that confront social protection policy makers in the region and discusses which policy directions are most appropriate for tackling today’s social protection needs and preparing for those of tomorrow.

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  • 19-February-2019

    English, PDF, 3,194kb

    Social Protection System Review of Kyrgyzstan

    This Social Protection System Review explores ways by which social protection in Kyrgystan can be enhanced through a systemic approach.

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