This report develops a framework of social unrest within a complex understanding of systemic risk. The goal is to try to identify triggers (events that lead to social unrest) and drivers (causal roots) for the emergence of social unrest and, based on this functional analysis, to design policy options on how to avoid, mitigate or handle unrest. The framework should enable a better understanding of the circumstances that may trigger social unrest, how intensely that unrest is likely to materialize and what interventions promise to de-escalate the conflict or even prevent social unrest in the first place. Since social unrest is more a process of escalation than a finite state of the world, the term has been conceptualized in a step-by-step escalation scheme. Each step makes social unrest more severe. It is a gradual framework that identifies the different stages that make social unrest more and more probable. In order to identify relevant drivers and cluster of drivers, three case studies are investigated: pandemics, cyber-related risk and financial crises. The main question is how did or could these events cause social unrests. In a second step, an analytic model is used to capture the combined effects learned from the case study analysis. In a third step,the IRGC risk governance model for explaining the risk of social unrest or predicting the consequences of social unrest is applied. Finally , guidelines for normative governance with respect to social unrest are developed.
The balance of economic power is shifting. Countries that were once poor are becoming economic powerhouses. Yet poverty persists worldwide, depriving billions of people of basic necessities and the prospects of creating a better life. How are we responding to this challenge? This book explores the multi-faceted world of aid and development co-operation – a range of global, and sometimes contested, efforts aimed at reducing the impact of poverty. It traces the history of these efforts, explains where they come from and where they are going, and asks whether they are achieving as much as they could. It also examines some of the ways in which development efforts can be made more effective in achieving lasting benefits through good governance and the creation of a deeper partnership between developed and developing countries. And it looks at how the economic emergence of countries like China and India is bringing a new dynamic to development co-operation.
On the request of the G20, the OECD, in co-operation with other international organisations, provides technical analysis to help evaluate the appropriateness of the reforms nominated by countries, and the progress towards implementing those reforms.
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Almost four years since the onset of the global financial and economic crisis, unemployment and underemployment remain stubbornly high in many G20 countries, and many workers remain trapped in low-paid, often informal, jobs with little social protection.
How to design appropriate policies to strengthen growth and make it inclusive and sustainable over time? The policy issues highlighted in this volume - financial development,social policies, innovation, regulation and political economy issues - are relevant to all countries.
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Investment and growth in OECD economies are increasingly driven by knowledge-based capital (KBC). In many OECD countries, firms now invest as much or more in KBC as they do in physical capital such as machinery, equipment and buildings.
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Breaking down barriers to gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship would create new sources of economic growth and help make better use of everyone’s skills, according to this new OECD report.
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This paper focuses on inequalities in learning opportunities for individuals coming from different socio-economic backgrounds as a measure of (in)equality of opportunity in OECD countries.
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This article investigates the consequences of immigration for natives’ labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants’ integration in the host country labour market.
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The aim of this paper is to assess whether the use of ICT has an impact on student performances as measured in the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006.