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Reports


  • 2-November-2019

    English

    Investing in Youth: Korea

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the OECD on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and key emerging economies. The report on Korea presents new results from a comprehensive analysis of the situation of young people in Korea, exploiting various sources of survey-based and administrative data. It provides a detailed assessment of education, employment and social policies in Korea from an international perspective, and offers tailored recommendations to help improve the school-to-work transition. Earlier reviews in the same series have looked at youth policies in Brazil (2014), Latvia and Tunisia (2015), Australia, Lithuania and Sweden (2016), Japan (2017), Norway (2018), and Finland and Peru (2019).
  • 30-July-2019

    English

    Addressing Industrial Air Pollution in Kazakhstan - Reforming Environmental Payments Policy Guidelines

    Kazakhstan has recorded impressive economic growth rates since its independence, driven mainly by export of commodities and high rate of energy use. These rates are not sustainable and are generating significant air pollution, in particular from industrial stationary sources. This is putting at risk the country’s development ambitions to become one of the top global economies by 2050 and converge towards OECD living standards. Building on OECD previous analysis, this publication shows that Kazakhstan’s environmental payments (environmentally related taxes, non-compliance penalties and compensation for damage regulation) for industrial air pollutants, as currently applied, impede energy efficiency and pollution abatement with heavy-handed non-compliance responses and focus on rising revenues. They also add to the cost of doing businesses in the country with limited environmental benefit. In the spirit of the Polluter-Pays Principle, much more reforms of regulation of environmental payments are needed. This report provides guidelines for reform drawing from air pollution regulations in OECD member countries and the results of the analysis of the system in Kazakhstan carried out by the OECD in close co-operation with the Government of Kazakhstan.
  • 25-July-2019

    English

    Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Canada 2019

    Canada has not only the largest in terms of numbers, but also the most elaborate and longest-standing skilled labour migration system in the OECD. Largely as a result of many decades of managed labour migration, more than one in five people in Canada is foreign-born, one of the highest shares in the OECD. 60% of Canada’s foreign-born population are highly educated, the highest share OECD-wide. The recent introduction of Express Entry, a two-step selection system based on an initial pre-sreening of suitable candidates who enter a pool by Expression of Interest and subsequent selection of the most skilled candidates from the pool, has further enhanced the competitive edge of the selection system relative to other countries. It also ensures that those with the skills to succeed are admitted to Canada in a quick and efficient way. Core to Canada's success is not only the elaborate selection system itself, but also the innovation and infrastructure around it, which ensures constant testing, monitoring and adaptation of its parameters. This includes a comprehensive and constantly improving data infrastructure, coupled with the capacity to analyse it, and swift policy reaction to new evidence and emerging challenges.
  • 28-June-2019

    English

    Health for Everyone? - Social Inequalities in Health and Health Systems

    Good health is not only a key component of individual well-being but it influences labour market outcomes, improving people's chances at a better life. Inequalities in health and health-care access are an impediment to inclusive growth. This report documents a comprehensive range of inequalities in health and health systems to the detriment of disadvantaged population groups in a large set of OECD and EU countries. It assesses the gaps in health outcomes and risk factors between different socio-economic groups, and measures inequalities in health-care utilisation, unmet needs and financial protection. For these different domains, the report identifies groups of countries that display higher, lower and intermediate levels of inequality. This report demonstrates that if societies and their governments are serious about inclusive growth and reducing inequalities in societies, then health-related inequalities must be part of the equation.
  • 21-June-2019

    English

    Labour Market Inventory ASEAN 2010–15 - Labour Market Policy in an Age of Increasing Economic Integration

    The report reviews trends in labour market policies in ASEAN Member States and their main trading partners between 2010 and 2015. Policy-makers have invested significant effort in addressing some of the decent work challenges in the region between 2010 and 2015. In areas such as social protection and active labour market policies, national-level approaches have been positively influenced by ASEAN Declarations on these subjects.Despite extensive progress in many areas, significant policy gaps still remain. Workers who are more vulnerable to exploitation, such as migrants, minorities or informal workers, were the focus of only a small proportion of these policies during the period under review.This report highlights the need for continued dedication by policymakers to the improvement of labour market institutions and programmes. This commitment to the advancement of the Decent Work Agenda in the region could also benefit from further ASEAN-level actions focusing on labour and social issues.
  • 19-June-2019

    English

    TALIS 2018 Results (Volume I) - Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners

    Do teachers spend more time on actual teaching and learning in a typical lesson compared to previous years? Do they feel prepared to teach when they start teaching? What sort of continuous professional development programmes do they participate in and how does it impact their practice? This report looks first at how teachers apply their knowledge and skills in the classroom in the form of teaching practices, with an accompanying assessment of the demographic makeup of those classrooms and the school climate to provide context on learning environments. The volume then assesses the ways in which teachers acquired their knowledge and skills during their early education and training, as well as the steps they take to develop them through continuous professional development over the course of their career. Based on the voice of teachers and school leaders, the report offers a series of policy orientations to help strengthen the knowledge and skills of the teaching workforce to support its professionalism.The OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is the largest international survey asking teachers and school leaders about their working conditions and learning environments, and provides a barometer of the profession every five years. Results from the 2018 cycle explore and examine the various dimensions of teacher and school leader professionalism across education systems.
  • 18-June-2019

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Croatia 2019

    This review was prepared in response to Croatia's 2015 request to adhere to the Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. It assesses the climate for domestic and foreign investment in Croatia, its ability to comply with the principles of openness, transparency and non-discrimination and its policy convergence with the OECD Declaration, including responsible business conduct practices, and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by the government of Croatia in its reform efforts. Capitalising on the OECD Policy Framework for Investment, this review includes chapters on foreign investment trends and performance, foreign investor entry and operations, the legal and institutional framework for investment protection, investment promotion and facilitation, public governance, and policies to promote and enable responsible business conduct.
  • 14-June-2019

    English

    Good Practice for Good Jobs in Early Childhood Education and Care

    Recruiting and retaining skilled staff is a long-standing challenge for the early childhood education and care (ECEC) sector. OECD countries are increasingly demanding that ECEC staff be highly skilled and highly qualified, but a combination of low wages, a lack of status and public recognition, poor working conditions, and limited opportunities for professional development mean that recruitment and retention are frequently difficult. What can countries do to build a highly qualified and well-trained ECEC workforce? What is the best route to increasing staff skills without exacerbating staff shortages? How can countries boost pay and working conditions in the context of limited resources? Building on past OECD work on early childhood education and care, and drawing on the experience of OECD countries, this report outlines good practice policy measures for improving jobs in ECEC and for constructing a high-quality workforce.
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  • 11-June-2019

    English

    Addressing Problematic Opioid Use in OECD Countries

    Over the past few years, Canada and the United States have been experiencing an opioid crisis as a result of problematic opioid use fueled by the emergence of synthetic opioids such as fentanyl and carfentanil. Problematic opioid use is also spreading in other OECD countries, due to the upward trend of prescription opioid use and the complexities of the illegal drug supply. This report presents evidence on the magnitude of problematic opioid use across OECD countries, describes the main drivers, and identifies a set of policy actions to address them. The report highlights the opioid crisis as a complex public health issue that requires a comprehensive approach across all sectors, including health, social services, and law enforcement. Strong health information systems are also needed, particularly data and research. Preventing problematic opioid use requires a combination of policies that ensure more information is provided to patients and health care practitioners, while providing access to appropriate pain management treatment for patients. A public health approach to problematic opioid use must incorporate socio-economic considerations (e.g. employment and housing), which also need to be addressed to prevent problematic substance use in general.
  • 3-June-2019

    English

    Enabling Women’s Economic Empowerment - New Approaches to Unpaid Care Work in Developing Countries

    Women’s unequal share of unpaid care work can prevent their full participation in the economies of developing countries; however, care needs are growing globally. How can governments and development partners meet the needs of families and communities, while ensuring that all citizens benefit from economic opportunities and fair remuneration? As part of the OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment, this report focuses on identifying what works to address unpaid care work and sheds light on how governments, donors in the private sector and civil society actors – among others – can design policies to support both those who need care and those who provide care. The report brings together existing knowledge of policy options for unpaid care work across regions, in four policy areas: infrastructure, social protection, public services and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household.
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