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Australia faces the mutually reinforced challenges of boosting labour supply and promoting social inclusion. Labour underutilisation is especially prevalent among groups such as lone parents, people with disability, and Indigenous Australians.
After steady employment growth since the 1990s, Spain has experienced the sharpest increase in unemployment among OECD countries during the crisis, amplified by structural problems of the labour market.
Slovenia has been hit hard by the global crisis, but started to recover gradually. This Survey discusses policies to rapidly rebalance the Slovenian economy, restore competitiveness, improve the performance of the education system, and create a friendlier environment for foreign direct investmen
After the onset of the crisis, unemployment in Sweden increased markedly, though much less than expected and than during the early 1990s, even as participation in the labour market held up well.
Public spending per pupil on pre-primary education is low in international comparison whereas spending on tertiary academic education per graduate is among the highest in the OECD.
Closing the income gap with the OECD and enhancing distribution of growth requires reforms in many fronts. Better functioning labour and product markets and investment in skills and infrastructure would boost productivity, while well-designed social and education policies can reduce inequalities
This paper tests the hypothesis that, by giving people more voice in the government decision-making process, fiscal decentralisation fosters social capital, measured in terms of interpersonal trust.
In the 2000s, Turkey has enjoyed rapid catching–up. This was possible despite the adverse business environment, as the semi–formal and informal economy had a significant contribution to the expansion of the private sector.
Despite major progress over the last decade, more reforms are needed to meet Indonesia’s medium-term objectives for growth and poverty reduction. The Survey reviews the main challenges in the areas of energy subsidies, infrastructure, labour markets, education, health care and social protection.
Indonesia has made considerable progress over the years in improving the social conditions of its population, especially among disadvantaged groups, not least by raising government spending and strengthening social protection programmes.