Labour markets, human capital and inequality

Economic Policy Reforms: Going for Growth 2010

 

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Part I: Taking Stock of Structural Policies in OECD Countries

Chapter 1: Responding to the Crisis while Protecting Long-term Growth

OECD countries have taken a wide range of measures in response to the crisis, notably in the areas of infrastructure investment, taxes, the labour market, regulatory reforms and trade policy. This chapter assesses the expected effects of these measures on long-run income levels, and examines structural policy challenges to deliver strong and sustainable growth going forward. The main conclusions are that OECD countries have so far avoided major mistakes – in particular concerning trade and labour market policies – but some risks remain. The crisis has in general reinforced the need for structural reforms. These reforms could help to speed up the ongoing recovery, strengthen public finances while protecting long-term growth and, in some cases, contribute to the resolution of global current account imbalances.

Chapter 2: Responding to the Going for Growth Policy Priorities: an Overview of Progress since 2005

Against the background of a stronger need for reform in the wake of the crisis, this chapter assesses the progress that each country has made over the past five years in a broad range of structural policy areas where government action could boostlong-term growth. Two-thirds of OECD countries have sought to address at least one of the five policy weaknesses that were identified over the period. However, such reforms have been mostly incremental rather than radical in nature, and have seldom fully addressed the underlying policy deficiencies. Reforms have also been more frequent where they were expected to deliver immediate benefits – such as for increased spending on active labour market policies or tax cuts – than where they might have hurt the short-term interests of specific groups – such as with incumbent investors, farmers and permanent workers under competition policy, agricultural policy and job protection reforms.

Chapter 3: Country Notes

The country notes in this year’s edition of Going for Growth have two special features. One addresses the current crisis and recovery context, and the other marks the coming-of age of the Going for Growth exercise. Another novelty is that this edition follows up not only on policy priorities that were made last year, but also on all of the priorities that were made since the beginning of the Going for Growth exercise.

    Australia

    Greece

    New Zealand

    Austria

    Hungary

    Norway

    Belgium

    Iceland

    Poland

    anada

    Ireland

    Portugal

    Czech Republic

    Italy

    Slovak Republic

    Denmark

    Japan

    Spain

    European union

    Korea

    Sweden

    Finlan

    Luxembour

    Switzerland

    France

    Mexico

    Turkey

    Germany

    Netherlands

    United Kingdom

Migration 

Migration 

    United States

Chapter 4: Structural Policy Indicators

 

Part II: Taking Stock of Structural Policies in OECD Countries

Chapter 5: A Family Affair: Intergenerational Social Mobility across OECD Countries

Video: Asa Johanson discusses social mobility

This chapter assesses recent cross-country patterns in intergenerational  social mobility and examines the role that public policies play in affecting mobility. Intergenerational earning, wage and educational mobility vary widely across OECD countries. Mobility in earnings, wages and education across generations is relatively low in France, southern European countries, the United Kingdom and the United States. By contrast, such mobility tends to be higher in Australia, Canada and the Nordic countries.

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Chapter 6: Getting it Right: Prudential Regulation and Competition in Banking 

Stability and competition are both desirable features of a well-functioning banking sector. The importance of banking sector stability has been highlighted by the recent financial crisis, while gains from competition, in terms of efficient financial intermediation and access of firms and households to finance, are well established. Based on indicators of different aspects of prudential regulation for banking prior to the crisis, this chapter finds little evidence that the two objectives of stability and competition conflict with each other, with one exception being the anti-competitive effect of stringent entry and ownership regulations. A stronger banking supervisor even seems to strengthen competition, as it is found to potentially reduce the cost of credit faced by borrowers.

 

Chapter 7: Going For Growth in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa

Taken together, the “BIICS” (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa) have been an important engine for world growth through this crisis, and they account for a growing share of global output. However, further reforms will be needed to ensure catch-up to OECD GDP per capita levels over the long term. This Chapter uses the OECD’s Going for Growth framework, as well as other available evidence linking policies to economic performance, to identify key structural policy challenges in the BIICS for the years ahead. While such challenges vary from country to country, common areas for reform include strengthening policies in the areas of education, product market regulation and labour markets, as well as improving more basic market institutions.

Video: Deputy Secretary-General and Chief Economist, Pier Carlo Padoan, discusses Going for Growth in emerging economies

How to obtain this publication

 

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Countries list

  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Cape Verde
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China (People’s Republic of)
  • Chinese Taipei
  • Colombia
  • Comoros
  • Congo
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • European Union
  • Faeroe Islands
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guatemala
  • Guernsey
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong, China
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Isle of Man
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kiribati
  • Korea
  • Kuwait
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macao (China)
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Mexico
  • Micronesia (Federated States of)
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nauru
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Niue
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestinian Administered Areas
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Romania
  • Russian Federation
  • Rwanda
  • Saint Helena
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Samoa
  • San Marino
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Serbia and Montenegro (pre-June 2006)
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • South Sudan
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syrian Arab Republic
  • Tajikistan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Timor-Leste
  • Togo
  • Tokelau
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Tuvalu
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • United States Virgin Islands
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • Virgin Islands (UK)
  • Wallis and Futuna Islands
  • Western Sahara
  • Yemen
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe