Reforming or eliminating inefficient support for the consumption or production of fossil fuels can contribute to achieving economic and fiscal objectives and helping to tackle environmental problems such as climate change. To further support reform efforts, OECD and IEA compile estimates of subsidies and other support measures for a large number of countries.

This site brings together the OECD inventory of estimated budgetary support and tax expenditures relating to the production or use of fossil fuels in its member economies, and IEA data on consumption subsidies, primarily in developing and emerging economies.


The estimates from the OECD and the IEA are based on two different approaches, which provide distinct but complementary information. For that reason, the two sets of data are not directly comparable and cannot be added. More...



Budgetary support and tax expenditures - OECD analysis

Consult the data (Excel) and overview (pdf) with estimates of budgetary support and tax expenditures relating to fossil fuels in each OECD member country.
Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels 2013 | OECD Free preview | Powered by Keepeek Digital Asset Management Solution

Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels 2013

Quantitative estimates of support for the production or consumption of fossil fuels in OECD member economies, with a summary of each country's energy economy and support measures. 

» Read the complete book online

» Summary of the main findings:
   English | Français | Español | русский

» Background information on the context, methodology and caveats associated with the data:
   English | Français

 Country information

Australia Data | Overview: English Japan Data | Overview: English
Austria Data | Overview: English Deutsch Korea Data | Overview: English
Belgium Data | Overview: English Français Luxembourg Data | Overview: English
Brazil Data | Overview: English Mexico Data | Overview: English Español
Canada Data | Overview: English Français Netherlands Data | Overview: English
Chile Data | Overview: English Español New Zealand Data | Overview: English
Czech Republic Data | Overview: English Norway Data | Overview: English
Denmark Data | Overview: English Poland Data | Overview: English Polski
Estonia Data | Overview: English Portugal Data | Overview: English
Finland Data | Overview: English Russian Federation Data | Overview: English
France Data | Overview: English Français Slovak Republic Data | Overview: English
Germany Data | Overview: English Deutsch Slovenia Data | Overview: English
Greece Data | Overview: English Spain Data | Overview: English Español
Hungary Data | Overview: English Sweden Data | Overview: English
Iceland           Overview: English Switzerland Data | Overview: English Français
India Data | Overview: English Turkey Data | Overview: English
Ireland Data | Overview: English United Kingdom Data | Overview: English
Israel Data | Overview: English United States Data | Overview: English
Italy Data | Overview: English Italiano      

See also:

European Union_small

Budgetary support and tax expenditures for fossil fuels. An inventory for six non-OECD EU countries (2013)
(Link opens on European Commission website)

Using the OECD’s method and approach, the European Commission has extended the coverage of the information contained in the OECD Inventory to those measures that support the production or the consumption of fossil fuels in the six non-OECD EU countries: Bulgaria, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta and Romania.

 Note: OECD is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites.

Consumption subsidies - IEA analysis

Each year the IEA undertakes a global survey to identify economies that artificially lower end-use prices for fossil fuels to below the full cost of supply. The estimates cover subsidies to fossil fuels consumed by end users and subsidies to fossil-fuel inputs to electric power generation.

Click on the image (left) or on this link to open an interactive map with estimates of oil, electricity, coal and natural gas consumption subsidies in 38 economies, for the years 2009 to 2011.

You can also download a table with an overview of the estimates (Excel file)

» More on IEA fossil fuel subsidy analysis

IEA data is taken from the annual publication World Energy Outlook                                                            

» More on this publication


Further reading

Click to read online edition


Joint report by IEA, OPEC, OECD and World Bank on fossil-fuel and other energy subsidies
An update of the G20 Pittsburgh and Toronto Commitments (pdf, 14 pages, 750 KB)

This joint report to the G20 Summit in Cannes in November 2011 highlights the extent of subsidies and other support to fossil fuel production and consumption, the potential economic and environmental benefits of subsidy reform, and guidance on how countries can undertake the reforms while still protecting the poor.

» More reports to G20 on fossil-fuel subsidies and support

Taxing Energy Use | OECD Free preview | Powered by Keepeek Digital Asset Management Solution

Taxing Energy Use: A Graphical Analysis

This publication provides the first systematic statistics of effective tax rates – on a comparable basis - for each OECD country, together with ‘maps’ that illustrate graphically the wide variations in tax rates per unit of energy or per tonne of CO2 emissions.

» More OECD work on environmental taxation

The Trade Effects of Phasing Out Fossil-Fuel Consumption Subsidies

A co-ordinated multilateral removal of fossil-fuel consumption subsidies over the 2013-2020 period would increase global trade volumes by 0.1% by 2020, according to this OECD paper. (Published as OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper 2011/05)

» More OECD Trade and Environment Papers

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Mexico 2013 | OECD Free preview | Powered by Keepeek Digital Asset Management Solution

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Mexico 2013

Mexico spent 1.7% of GDP on energy subsidies over 2005-09, including those for transport fuels and electricity use by households and farmers. This review recommends extending the use of environmentally related taxes and reforming environmentally harmful subsidies in order to tackle climate change and reduce inequality.

» More OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

Phasing out energy subsidies | OECD Free preview | Powered by Keepeek Digital Asset Management Solution

Phasing out energy subsidies (Chapter 5 of OECD Economic Surveys: Indonesia 2010)

The oil price hike in 2007-08 underlined the vulnerability of Indonesia’s energy subsidy policy to oil price volatility. Phasing out energy subsidies would benefit both the economy and the environment, says this report.

» More OECD Economic Surveys