Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective - online version



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This animated graphics video shows the different ways OECD countries fund business R&D.

OECD's Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective (presentation about this new OECD publication, PPT)


Corrigendum, 30 March 2011



Towards a Measurement Agenda for Innovation 


Chapter 1: Innovation today


Sources of growth


Decomposition of growth in GDP per capita, 2001-08

New sources of growth


Labour productivity growth: adding the contribution of intangible assets, 1995-2006


Intangible assets


Investment in fixed and intangible assets as a share of GDP, 2006

Innovation beyond R&D


New-to-market product innovators, 2004-06

Protection of innovation


Patents and trademarks per capita, 2005-07



Service-related trademarks, 2008


Comparing cycles: United States Gross Domestic Product and trademark applications at the USPTO, 1999-2010

Mixed modes of innovation


Complementary innovation strategies in manufacturing, 2004-06


Complementary innovation strategies in services, 2004-06

Collaboration in innovation


Firms with national/international collaboration on innovation, 2004-06


Collaboration on innovation, 2004-06

Mapping hot research areas

Hot research areas on a science map, 2008

Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research

Locations of inter-/multidisciplinary research areas on the science map, 2008

New players in research


Scientific articles and co-authorship, 1998 and 2008

Scientific collaboration


Trends in co-operation on scientific articles, 1985-2007


Scientific collaboration with BRIC countries, 1998 and 2008

Clusters of knowledge

Patents per million inhabitants, Europe, average 2005-2007

Patents per million inhabitants, North America, average 2005-2007

Patents per million inhabitants, Japan and Korea, average 2005-2007

Patents per million inhabitants, Australia and New Zealand, average 2005-2007

Innovation hotspots


Innovation hot spots in renewable energy, 2005-07


Innovation hot spots in biotechnologies and nanotechnologies, 2005-07

Science for environmental innovation


The innovation-science link in “green” technologies, 2000-07

Technological innovation for climate change


Trends in technological innovation for climate change mitigation, 1978-2006

Transfers of environmental technologies

Transfer of wind (top) and solar photovoltaic (bottom) technologies, 1990-2007


Chapter notes

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Chapter 2: Empowering people to innovate


Basic scientific skills


  • Reading, mathematics and science proficiency at age 15, 2006
  • Length of time students have been using a computer and mean PISA science score, 2006


Tertiary education


  • Transition from upper secondary education to graduation at the university level, 2007
  • Annual tuition fees charged by public universities and public subsidies to private entities, 2007
  • Private net present value for an individual obtaining tertiary education as part of initial education, 2005


Doctorate holders


  • Graduation rates at doctorate level, 2007
  • Science and engineering graduates at the doctoral level, 2007
  • New graduates at doctorate level by country of graduation, 2007


Skills mismatch


  • Unemployment rate of university graduates, 2007
  • Supply of and demand for highly skilled employees, 2009
  • Percentage difference in median gross annual earnings between doctorate holders working as researchers and those not working as researchers, 2006


International mobility


  • International students, 2007
  • Job-to-job mobility of human resources in science and technology (HRST), employed 25-to-64-year-olds, 2007
  • International mobility of doctorate holders by main destination, 2006


Entrepreneurial talent


  • Self-employed by place of birth, 15-to-64-year-olds, 2008
  • Percentage of the population 18 to 64 years old who received any type of training in starting a business, during or after school, 2008


GAP page - Innovative workplace and skills for innovation


  • Firms engaged in innovation-related training activities by size, 2004-06


Consumers' demand for innovation


  • Final consumption expenditure of households, by selected category, 2008
  • Percentage of households having invested in environmentally friendly products in the last ten years, 2008
  • Monthly household expenditures on communication services, by type of access, 2007


Chapter notes

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Chapter 3: Unleashing innovation in firms


Entry and exit


  • Entry rate, average 2000-07
  • Employer enterprise birth rate (2006) and death rate (2005) in the manufacturing sector
  • Employer enterprise birth rate (2006) and death rate (2005) in the services sector


Mobilising private funding


  • Long-term interest rates, 2008
  • Venture capital investment, 2008
  • Business angels, 2007


Policy environment


  • Days needed to start a business, 2010
  • Barriers to entrepreneurship, 2008
  • Taxation on personal income and corporate income, 2009


Young and innovative firms


  • One- and two-year-old employer enterprises in manufacturing and in services, 2006
  • Patenting activity of young firms, 2005-07
  • Patenting and survival - within a two-year window, 2006


Chapter notes

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Chapter 4: Investing in innovation


Firms investing in R&D


  • Business enterprise expenditure on R&D, 2008
  • Direct and indirect government funding of business R&D and tax incentives for R&D, 2007


Firms investing in innovation


  • Expenditure on innovation, by firm size, 2006
  • Firms receiving public support for innovation, by size, 2004-06
  • Firms' turnover from product innovation, by type, 2006


Government funding R&D


  • Government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D, 2007
  • Government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D by selected socio-economic objectives, 2008
  • Government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D by national sector of performance, 2008 (updated 30 March 2011)


Higher education and basic research


  • Higher education expenditure on R&D, 2008
  • Government funded R&D in higher education by type of funding, 2008
  • Basic research performed in the public sector, 2007


Information and communication technologies


  • ICT investment by asset in OECD countries, 2008
  • Increase in the probability to innovate linked to ICT use, manufacturing, 2006
  • Increase in the probability to innovate linked to ICT use, services, 2006


Firms and smart infrastructure


  • OECD broadband subscribers per 100 inhabitants, by technology, June 2009
  • Evolution of a representative DSL broadband subscription over time, 2005-09


Governments and smart infrastructure


  • E-government readiness index, 2008
  • Relation between broadband penetration and citizen uptake of e-government services, 2008


GAP page - Measuring innovation in the public sector

  • Total expenditure of general government, 2008


GAP page - Multi-level governance of innovation

  • Share of sub-national government in public investment, 2007


Chapter notes

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Chapter 5: Reaping returns from innovation


Scientific collaboration


  • Scientific articles by type of collaboration, 2008
  • Highly cited (top 1%) scientific articles by type of collaboration, 2006-08


Science and industry linkages


  • Patents filed by public research organisations, 2000-07
  • Main scientific fields cited in “green” patents by inventor country, 2000-07
  • Relative citation rate in “green” patents by main scientific fields 2000-07


Knowledge clusters


  • R&D intensity by region, 2007
  • Regional average of PCT patents with co-inventor(s) by location, 2005-07




  • Patents granted at the European Patent Office by 2009
  • ICT-related patents granted at the European Patent Office by 2009
  • Biotechnology patents granted at the European Patent Office by 2009
  • Nanotechnology patents granted at the European Patent Office by 2009
  • Renewable energy patents granted at the European Patent Office by 2009


Knowledge circulation


  • International technology flows (royalties and licence fees), 1997-2008 (updated 30 March 2011)
  • Patenting firms licensing out at least one patent to non-affiliated companies, 2006
  • Foreign inventions owned by countries, 2005-07


Chapter notes

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Chapter 6: Addressing global challenges




  • Total expenditure on health, 2007
  • Health R&D in government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D, 2008
  • Public funding of health-related R&D, 2007


Climate change


  • Renewable energy patents, 1998-2006
  • Patents for climate change mitigation technologies, 2007
  • Government research, development and demonstration (RD&D) expenditures on selected climate change mitigation technologies, 2004-08


Other environmental challenges


  • Patent applications in pollution abatement and waste management technologies, 2002-07
  • Government R&D budget devoted to control and care for the environment, 2008
  • Facilities with environmentally-related R&D in selected manufacturing sectors, 2003


Chapter notes

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