Climate Climate Change Click here for additional information

GHG emission trends


GHG emissions refer to the sum of gross direct emissions of six major GHG (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, HFCs, PFCs, SF6), expressed in CO2 equivalents. Emissions and removals from land use change and forestry are not included.

Read more on the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol

CO2 emission intensities per unit of GDP


CO2 emissions refer to gross direct emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, i.e. from burning oil, coal and natural gas for energy use. Human-caused emissions from other sources are not included. Intensities are expressed as tonnes of CO2 emitted per unit of GDP.

Climate Air Quality Click here for additional information

SOx emission trends


Total emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from human activities, given as quantities of SO2 and NO2. The indicators show emission trends compared to GDP trends as well as emission intensities per unit of GDP.

Read more on the Gothenburg protocol

NOx emission trends

SOx intensities per unit of GDP

NOx intensities per unit of GDP

Climate Waste Generation Click here for additional information

Municipal waste generation trends


Municipal waste is waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities. It includes household waste originating from households (i.e. waste generated by the domestic activity of households) and similar waste from small commercial activities, office buildings, institutions, and small businesses that treat or dispose of waste at the same facilities used for municipally collected waste.

Municipal waste per capita

Municipal waste recovery rates

Climate Biodiversity Click here for additional information

Threatened species: Mammals


"Threatened species" refers to the "endangered", "critically endangered" and "vulnerable" species, i.e. species in danger of extinction and species soon likely to be in danger of extinction. The number of threatened species is compared to the number of known or assessed species.

Read more on the IUCN Red List of threatened species

Threatened species: Birds

Threatened species: Vascular


Vascular plants (also known as tracheophytes or higher plants) are those plants that have lignified tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. Vascular plants include the ferns, clubmosses, flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms.

Climate Water Quality Click here for additional information

Population connected to a sewage treatment plant


The indicator presented here refers to sewage treatment connection rates, i.e. the percentage of the national population connected to a waste water treatment plant.

Climate Water Resource Click here for additional information

Freshwater abstractions compared to available freshwater resources


The intensity of use of freshwater resources (or water stress) refers to gross abstractions of freshwater taken from ground or surface waters per capita expressed in % of total available renewable freshwater resources (including water inflows from neighboring countries)

Freshwater abstractions for public supply per capita


Freshwater abstractions for public supply are expressed as cubic meters per capita per year.

Climate Forest Resources Click here for additional information

Intensity of use of forest resources.


This indicator relates actual fellings to annual productive capacity (i.e. gross increment).

Forest area


This indicator refers to forest area as percentage of land area

Climate Energy Resources Click here for additional information

Energy intensity


Energy intensity refers to total primary energy supply (TPES) per unit of GDP.

Share of fossil fuels


The share of fossil fuels in total primary energy supply.

Climate Environmentally Related Taxes Click here for additional information

Share in GDP


Environmentally related taxes include taxes on energy products, motor vehicles and transport, waste management, ozone-depleting substances and others. They are expressed as environmentally related tax revenues in % of GDP and as % of total tax revenues.

Share in total tax revenues